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Volume -4 Issue - 2
Month [Year] -- [2013]
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The probability of stochastic radiation effects depends not only on the absorbed dose, but also on the type and energy of the radiation causing the dose. This is considered by weighting the absorbed dose with a factor related to the radiation quality. In the past this factor was known as the quality factor.

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दलित साहित्य में नारी की चेतना is in Hindi , Translated Version will be available Soon.

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In marketing strategy, product strategy occupies a pivotal place. A marketer has to decide whether he should modify a product slightly to suit the rural consumer needs and perceptions or market a totally separate product or brand for rural market. Marketing a totally separate product or brand for the rural market may not be possible in some cases. Whereas in some cases it may very well be possible to develop entirely difference brands to suit rural market.

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Political parties today are in a situation of permanent campaigning. That is, as the media are becoming more fragmented and competitive and voters increasingly are becoming less tied to one particular party with increased number of party switchers as a consequence, parties have become more professional. On the one hand, the parties have become professional by introducing a systematic use of political opinion polls and focus groups in their planning of the political message and its wrapping. On the other hand parties have become professional by employing an increased number of professionals (e.g. pollster, spin-doctors and campaigners) in order to manage the media and strategic focus of the political message to maximize the number of votes.

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The data stored in the warehouse are uploaded from the operational systems. The data may pass through an operational data store for additional operations before they are used in the DW for reporting. In computing, a data warehouse or enterprise data warehouse (DW, DWH, or EDW) is a database used for reporting and data analysis. It is a central repository of data which is created by integrating data from one or more disparate sources. Data warehouses store current as well as historical data and are used for creating trending reports for senior management reporting such as annual and quarterly comparisons.

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A Special Economic zone (SEZ) or free Trade Zone (FTZ is typically an enclave of units operating in well defined area within the geographical boundary of a country where certain economic activities are promoted by a set of poilicy measures that are not generally applicable to the rest of the country. These zones are known by different name such as Free Trade Zones (FTZ) Industrial Free Zones Special Economic Zones (SEZ) Bonded Free ones Maquiladoras (Mexico) and Special Economic Zones (China) These zones offer high quality infrastructure facilities &Support services and allow duty free imports of capital goods and raw materials. In addition attractive fiscal benefits, relaxed labor laws and simpler procedure are also offered in such zones. Over the years this concept has expanded and evolved to encompass larger areas, higher levels of integration with the defined geographical boundaries and increased integration and the local economy. SEZs today are not only a tool for export development but also contains in them the potential of generating economic spin off of enormous proportions leading to regional development.

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The number of subjects that can be recruited in proteomics studies and the number of proteomics parameter that can be measured has increased rapidly over the past decade and is likely to continue to expand. Proteomics-based approaches, which examine the expressed proteins of a tissue or cell type, complement the genome initiatives and are increasingly used to address biomedical questions. Proteins are the main functional output, and the genetic code cannot always indicate which proteins are expressed, in what quantity, and in what form. For example- post translational modifications of proteins such as phosphorylation or glycosylation, are very important in determining protein function. Similarly, the effects of environmental factors or muligenic processes such as ageing or disease cannot be assessed simply by examination of the genome alone. This review describes the underlying technology and illustrates several areas of biomedical research, ranging from pathogenesis of neurological disorders to drug and vaccine design, in which potential clinical application are being explored.

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An honour killing is a form of violence against women that occurs in the family or community. Honour killing is a human rights violation and a crime, although those responsible for such crimes are typically not held fully accountable by the state. “Honour crimes” are acts of violence committed primarily against women who are considered to have brought shame on their family or community. They occur in the context of social customs within communities that control every aspect of women’s lives, including their bodies, speech and behavior.

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The objective of geographic work in this tradition is to support and justify the extension of the power of the national state by outlining specific geographic features or areas that are crucial for political control. The tradition could be labeled strategic, nationalist or power-oriented political geographies and is usually identified as ‘geopolitics’.

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The paper tries to evaluate the causes of the ethnic conflicts in Assam. The study conducted in the various ethnic conflicts that took place among them at different times in Assam. The study tries to bring to light various cause and reasons for increasing ethnic conflicts in Assam after independence and tries to give some important suggestions to minimize the conflicts for the greater interest of the Assamese society

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The World Wide Web has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. Interactive and dynamic web advertisements have become popular because it is a low cost and promotional tool. As the number of internet users is increasing dramatically, it provides a big room for web advertising. The aim of the present research is to investigate the factors affecting attitude towards web advertising so as to enhance the effectiveness of web advertising. Psychological factors such as thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition directly correlate with our customers’ online advertising experience.

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When there is perfect competition in the market, the consumer is supreme, as his welfare is maximised. However, monopoly is bad for the consumer and the economy. The monopolist controls the market and can increase prices or reduce volumes. There is ‘allocative inefficiency’ and in economic terms there is ‘deadweight loss’. Since the monopolist is under no pressure to minimise cost, he is often content to enjoy a quiet life rather than face vigorous rivalry. As economist Liebenstein put it there is ‘X-inefficiency’.

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To measure the health related physical fitness component that is cardio-vascular endurance and establishing norms of same test for students, age 16 and 17 years, studying in the Higher Secondary Schools of Maharashtra was represent the population. Random sampling, maximum 12,800 students (i.e., 6,400 boys and 6,400 girls) from all Education Divisions of Maharashtra state was attended for data collection. The research design followed, here, a survey-cum-normative research.

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Democracy is not only a nature of government but also is a system of society and a sort of state well wisher of democratic system have expressed their views that democracy is only a form of government. As far as democracy is concerned, the definition given by Abraham Lincon is very popular. He defines; “Democracy is the government of the people for the people by this people”. Although Dr. Ambedkar had defined democracy in the same essence. However it has a broad sense of democratic life. He envisages; Democracy is not merely a form of government. It is primarily a mode of associated living of conjoint communicated experience. It is essentially an altitude of respect and reverence towards fellowmen.

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In the 17th century, the Mughal Empire witnessed developments in all spheres of economy which included agriculture, trade (inland and overseas), industries, banking and monetization or circulation of money. Although trade and commerce of the period was generally the purview of the business community; but there are a number of instances when royal family members and nobles of the state took strong interest in the commercial activities

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FDI is a type of investment that involves the injection of foreign funds into an enterprise that operates in a different country of origin from the investor. Regardless of today’s crisis, India is considered as one of the most superlative place by foreign investors because of its increasing young population and rising disposable income among the middle class society, that is why large corporations like walmart are showing keen interest in initiating there retail operations in India.But mass round of discussions and debate has started after Government decision on 14 September 2012 allowing FDI in aviation up to 49%, in the broadcast sector up to 74%, in multi-brand retail up to 51% and in single-brand retail up to 100% with high level of disagreement and resistance from the opposition who believe

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Positioning is a platform for the product or brand. It facilitates the brand to get through to the target consumer. Positioning is the act of fixing the locus of the product offer in the minds of the target consumers. In positioning, the firm decides how and around what parameters, the product offer has to be placed before the target consumers. The significance of product positioning can be easily understood from David Ogilvy’s words, ‘the results of your campaign depends less on how we write your advertising than on how your product is positioned.’

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Decision making essentially involves choosing a particular course of action, after considering the possible alternatives scientific decision-making rests upon organized principles of knowledge and depends largely upon the collection of empirical data and analysis of the data in a way that repeatable results will be obtained.

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Developments in the field of HRM are now well documented in the management literature (see e.g. Boxall, 1992; Legge, 1995; Schuler and Jackson, 2007; Sisson and Storey, 2000; Torrington et al., 2005). The roots of HRM go back as far as the 1950s, when writers like Drucker and McGregor stressed the need for visionary goal-directed leadership and management of business integration (Armstrong, 1987). This was succeeded by the ‘behavioural science movement’ in the 1960s, headed by Maslow, Argyris and Herzberg. These scholars emphasised the ‘value’ aspect of human resources (HR) in organisations and argued for a better quality of working life for workers.

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The OECD Guidelines for Consumer Protection in the Context of Electronic Commerce (OECD, 1999) advocate that consumers should receive the same protections when shopping online as when buying goods or services via traditional methods. The 1999 Guidelines served as a model for developing the E-Commerce Best Practice Model.

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हरियाणा की धर्म-धरा को भारतीय संस्कृति का पालना कहा जाता है। धर्म एक दर्षन के अतिरिक्त यहां की लोककलाओं ने इसकी संस्कृति को समृद्व बनाने में अहम भूमिका निभार्इ है। और इन लोक कलाओं में अग्रगण्य रहा है यहां का लोकनाटय (सांग) लोकनाटय का प्रभाव क्षेत्र केवल नाटय-कला तक ही सीमित नही रहता, अपितु इसकी परिधि में परंपराएं पलती है, इतिहास बोलता है और वे मान्यताएं प्रतिबिमिबत होती है जो शताबिदयों से हमारे समाज का पथ-दर्षन करती आर्इ है।

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The aim of present paper was made to explore impact of anxiety on angina pectoris. The sample consists of 100 (50 angina pectoris and 50 normal populations). The obtained data were treated by descriptive statistics. The r value was found positively correlated with angina patient than normal population. The present results show that anxiety is an important factor which was determinant of the angina pectoris. That mediated a significant role in onset of occurrence of angina pectoris.

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1. These are This article tries to clarify the economic situation of Shias in India with a historical, analytical and qualitative approach by the use of historical sources and field studies. In this research, initially the economic situation has been studied chronologically and then we have dealt with the economic situation of Shias in India. According to the findings of this research, the main sources of wealth in India are firstly business, construction and migration of many citizens to Arabic and Pakistan countries which have helped to improve their economy. The level of poverty among Shia Muslims; the amount or the size of population below the poverty line only shows the scope or the spread of poverty among the social groups, but it does not reveal the intensiveness or the depth of poverty among the social groups. The achieved results show more poverty depth among Hindu and Muslim tribes compared to other social groups of India. Of course, it must be mentioned that poverty depth in the cities is different from villages, and Muslims in villages with less poverty depth have better situations even than the other social groups in India. Study of equality and inequality among the social groups; economically, one of the most important issues in the economic evaluations is the study of inequality within every social group.

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India is emerging as prominent power in the globalized world. Globalization has accelerated the economic growth of the country but it has also widened the rich-poor gap. The whole country is symbolically divided into two "the India of light and India of darkness. By using the metaphor of light and darkness, Adiga democrat's poor and rich people of the country. The different living standard and lifestyle of these upper class and lower class people presented is the novel accentuates the disparity and distinction. The people of darkness with their dark-bodies, filthy faces and the animal life way living under the huge bridges and over passes are easily distinguishable from rich setting in air conditioned cars.

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The children of today are the citizen of tomorrow. That’s why children are considered to be the backbone of the Nation. The nation‘s development can only be when its citizens are conscious towards the development of children. It is widely acknowledged that literacy helps to achieve high economic growth. This boon of education should be received equally by abled and disabled according to their potential or capacity. To enhance the contribution of disabled children and to remove the myth of them being burden in the society, the concept of Inclusive education is incorporated. So, they will be accepted in the mainstream without any prejudice or barrier. Enrolment of Children with Special Needs in the regular school strengthen two important Fundamental Rights which are provided by our constitution to our citizen. Firstly, the right to ‘equality of opportunity’. Secondly, the right to free and compulsory elementary education. This will help in providing quality education to the disabled lot with their peer group.

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भगवती प्रसाद वाजपेयी जी प्रेम-सौन्दर्य का आंकलन मूल्याकन समीचीन है। भगवती प्रसाद वाजपेयी जी का प्रेम-सौन्दर्य चित्रण सम्बन्ध विचार संकीर्ण नहीं बलिक व्यापक मानवता सापेक्ष एवं सामाजिक सरोकारों से सम्प्रक्त है। उनकी दृषिट सौन्दर्योन्मुखी से परिपूर्ण रही है। उनके उपन्यासों में निहित स्त्री-पुरूष सौन्दर्याकर्षित प्रेम और सौन्दर्य थिरकता है। उनका जीवन के प्रति सकारात्मक दृषिटकोण भी है। वे सौन्दर्याकर्षित प्रेम-सौन्दर्य के उपन्यासकार हुए है। प्रेम-सौन्दर्य की अभिव्यकित के पुरस्कर्ता वाजपेयी जी ने अपने उपन्यासों में व्यापक एवं गहरे मुल्यों को समेटा है। प्रेम-सौन्दर्य का चित्रण उनके उपन्यासों में परस्पर स्त्री-पुरूष को सौन्दर्याकर्षित प्रेम-भावना प्रधान है। 'चलते-चलते शीर्षक उपन्यास में पुरूष पात्र राजेन्द्र सौन्दर्य का पुजारी है। इनके साहित्य से प्रेम-सौन्दर्य का सम्बन्ध तथा साहित्य में इस सबका तातिवक विवेचन रेखांकित है। प्रेम और सौन्दर्य स्वरूपगत विवेचन युक्त धारणा तथा प्रेम सम्बन्धी विविध रूप वर्णित है। सौन्दर्य का स्वरूप तथा परिभाषा, प्रेम के सम्बन्ध में विविध विचार प्राकृतिक, कलात्मक, मानवीय प्रेम सौन्दर्य का पारस्परिक संबंध विवेचित है। मैं भगवती प्रसाद वाजपेयी जी के प्रेमाकर्षित सौन्दर्य बोध को अधिक विस्तरित रूप में आगे प्रस्तुत कर रहीं हूं, जो कि निम्न प्रकारों में है

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Present study is focused on the importance of marketing mix for the successful marketing of tourism products. It is also based on the analysis of the suitability of different Ps in the present marketing set up. Questionnaire containing ten questions is used to collect the information from travel related bodies on their perception and practice related to components of marketing mix. And it is found that they have different success stories which is not based on traditional marketing mix and finally it is concluded that it is better to formulate own marketing mix mantra according to market demand.

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वैदिक साहित्य के उपरान्त ध्र्मशास्त्रा हमारी संस्कृति एवं सभ्यता के परिचायक ग्रन्थ हैं। जो हमे विधि तथा निषेध् दोनों का ज्ञान कराते हुए, ध्र्म की ओर उन्मुख करते हैं। संस्कार भी ध्र्म का ही एक रूप हैं, क्योंकि संस्कार धर्मिक-कृत्य के रूप में स्वीकृत व्यकितत्व के विकास के प्रथम सोपान माने गये हैं। कहा गया है कि - ''जन्मना जायते शूद्र: संस्कारात द्विज उच्यते। अर्थात जन्म से तो प्रत्येक व्यकित शूद्र पैदा होता है और संस्कारों के द्वारा वह दूसरा जन्म लेकर द्विज कहलाता है। ये मनुष्य के जन्म से पूर्व ही प्रारम्भ होकर मृत्युपर्यन्त निरन्तर उसका शारीरिक, मानसिक, बौ(िक एवं वैयकितक परिष्कार कर उसे अèयात्म की ओर अग्रसर करते हैं, जिससे व्यकित ही नहीं वरन समाज भी परिपुष्ट होता है। वस्तुत: मानव जीवन का सर्वाÄõीण विकास ही इनका उददेश्य है।

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India is a growing giant facing the critical challenge of meeting a rapidly increasing demand for energy. With a billion people, a fifth of the population, India ranks sixth in the world in terms of energy demand. Its economy is projected to grow 7%-8% over the next couple of decades, and in its wake will be a substantial increase in demand for energy to fuel land, sea and air transportation. The energy path we are currently on is clearly unsustainable. Nearly one third of the world population has no access to electricity, while another third, have become addicted to a polluting, shrinking and insecure resource base.

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The business environment is often unpredictable and uncertain because of factors such as economic changes, government regulations, dependence on subcontractors and vendors, etc. Managers often find themselves in a dynamic, unsettled environment where even short range plans must be constantly reassessed and incrementally adjusted. All these require a change-oriented mentality to cope with uncertainties. Remember that surprise is not an element of a robust decision.

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Caste is an unfortunate social reality in India. It promotes the process of marginalization, stigmatization and alienation of deprived sections including SCs. Exclusion and discrimination adversely affects economic growth due to less than optimum use of labour and other resources. Correcting exclusion/discrimination therefore is an issue of both equity (and poverty reduction) and economic growth. Socio-economic sketch of schedule caste show the adverse consequence of past and present economic exclusion on the SC. This is reflected in high degree of inequality between them and other sections with respect to ownership of capital assets, employment and wages earning education and health situation and other indicators of human development.

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So what is a spectrum in the context of this discussion? A spectrum is a collection of sine waves that, when combined properly, produce the time-domain signal under examination. the waveform of a complex signal. Suppose that we were hoping to see a sine wave. Although the waveform certainly shows us that the signal is not a pure sinusoid, it does not give us a definitive indication of the reason why. our complex signal in both the time and frequency domains.

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International scientific experts reported in the UN Millennium Ecosystem Report (2005) that substantial and critical world ecosystems are under enormous stress requiring immediate and responsible action locally, nationally and globally. The challenge exists, however, whether local communities can reduce their ecological footprints by adopting more sustainable lifestyle regimes. Efforts are being made all over the world to increase the sustainability of development patterns which is one of the UN Millennium Development Goals to be achieved by 2015.But paradox is: ‘We are encouraged to spend money we don’t have,on things we don’t need,to create impressions that don’t last,on people we don’t care about.’

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इस शोधपत्र का विषय आघऐतिहासिक काल में मिस्र और हड़प्पा सभ्यता के अंतर्गत मानव बसितयों का जो उदय व विकास हुआ। उसका तुलनात्मक अèययन करना है और यह जानना है कि सिंधु नदी और नील नदी घाटी में विकसित बसितयाँ किस तरह नगरीकरण की तरफ बढ़ती है। भौगोलिक परिसिथतियों के तहत मिस्र व सिंधु क्षेत्रों में काफी समानता नजर आती है और दोनों का ज्यादातर हिस्सा शुष्क और बंजर है जहाँ बहुत ही कम बारिश होती है। इन दोनों का एक हिस्सा एक विशाल रेगिस्तान है जो सहारा व मरुस्थल से मिल जाता है। मिस्र लाल सागर से लेकर नील नदी तक मिस्र का पूर्वी हिस्सा भी रेगिस्तान है। उस क्षेत्र में कुछ छोटी पहाडि़याँ भी हैं, उसे पूर्वी रेगिस्तान कहते हैं।

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No crimes elicit the same degree of public concern as do sexual offences. Between 1 in 4 and 1 in 10 adult women will be raped or sexually abused sometime in their lives in the United States and Worldwide, one in three women will be beaten in their lifetimes. Every year in the United States between 2 million and 4 million American women are beaten by their husbands or boyfriends. Thus, sexual offending is a pervasive problem with a powerful and traumatizing effect on communities and victims. Equally powerful is the dissemination of media reports, government publications, television shows and films that both construct a public fear of sexual perversion as well as develop a crippling stigma that is at many times irreversibly applied.

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We know that basic aim of all the business organizations is to earn the money, and profit is the one of main source of earning for them. The human being is performing the business activities since ages to earn the money but in today’s world, the scenario has been changed. Now mere earning the profit is not only motive of today’s business but it wants enhanced productivity and enhanced profitability. And it is only possible through Marketing Management.

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समस्त ज्ञान का आधार वेद है। वेदों की सुरक्षा के लिए वेदाङ्गों- 1. शिक्षा, 2. कल्प, 3. व्याकरण, 4. ज्येातिष, 5. छन्द एवं 6. निरुक्त की रचना की गई। इनको षडङ्ग नाम से भी जाना जाता है।

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India has formal diplomatic relations with most nations; it is the world's second most populous country, the world's most-populous democracy and one of the fastest growing major economies. With the world's seventh largest military expenditure, ninth largest economy by nominal rates and third largest by purchasing power parity, India is a regional power, a nascent great power and a potential superpower. India's growing international influence gives it a prominent voice in global affairs.

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The present study aims at framework of microfinance across India. The basic objective of this research is to know microfinance products like Microloans, Microsavings and Micro-Insurance. Microfinancing is not a new phenomenon. The term "microfinance" describes the limit of financial products that microfinance institutions (MFIs) offer to their customers. Microfinance began in the 1970s when social entrepreneurs began lending money on a large scale to the working poor. Small microcredit operations have existed since the mid 1700s. Although most modern microfinance institutions operate in developing countries, the rate of payment default for loans is surprisingly low more than 90% of loans are repaid. The present paper makes an attempt to give brief profile of microfinance sector in India. The study shows that products of microfinance are powerful instruments for poverty alleviation through provision of financial services to low-income group of people, who traditionally unable to access banking services. Keywords: Micro finance, Micro loans, Micro savings and Micro insurance.

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व्याकरणशास्त्र में क्रिया दो प्रकार की मानी जाती है–सकर्मक और अकर्मक। सामान्य रूप से किसी क्रिया में कर्ता के साथ जब कर्म होता है तो उसे सकर्मक क्रिया कहते हैं और जब कर्ता के साथ कर्म नहीं होता है तो उसे अकर्मक क्रिया कहते हैं। व्याकरणशास्त्र में क्रिया के सकर्मक अकर्मक स्वरूप पर लगभग सभी वैयाकरणों ने विचार किया है किन्तु प्रस्तुत शोध लेख में कौण्भट्ट, कैयट, नागेश आदि विद्वानों के विचारों को मुख्य रूप से प्रस्तुत किया गया है। महाभाष्य में धातु का अर्थ क्रिया माना जाता है।

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Yoga is renowned for its calming and energizing effects, but is also gaining recognition for its mental health boosting abilities. The ancient body-bending practice kick-starts complex brain processes that make you feel like you can take on the world through the power of inner peace.

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Internet crime is crime committed on the Internet, using the Internet and by means of the Internet. Computer crime is a general term that embraces such crimes as phishing, credit card frauds, bank robbery, illegal downloading, industrial espionage, child pornography, kidnapping children via chat rooms, scams, cyberterrorism, creation and/or distribution of viruses, Spam and so on. All such crimes are computer related and facilitated crimes.

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प्रस्तुत लेख में वैयाकरणनिकाय के प्रसिद्ध राद्धान्त ‘धातुजत्व’ के सन्दर्भ में विचारणा की गई है। इसी सन्दर्भ में ‘धातु’ के स्वरूप पर भी प्राचीनदृष्ट्‌या विचार किया गया है। विभिन्न आचार्यों द्वारा अनुमोदित शब्द के विभाजन की प्रक्रियाओं के निदर्शन केे साथ-साथ पाणिनि-कृत त्रेधा विभाग की भाषा वैज्ञानिकता का भी अनुशीलन किया गया है। यद्यपि पद की दृष्टि से पाणिनि ने सुबन्त तथा तिङन्त की ही सत्ता स्वीकार की है।

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Secessionism is a major unity challenge which exists in both federal and non-federal regimes. It can occur due to the major divisions of identity along class, language, ethnicity, religion and other lines. Some times these major divisions lead to separatist movement. The advocators of unitary form of government believed that the unity and integrity of the country can be preserved under the unitary regimes. However, they did not consider the examples like: “The Irish movement of Home Rule in nineteenth- century Britain, the long civil war in South Sudan, the Basque insurgency under Franco in Spain, which all lead to major unity challenge in unitary countries” . Historically, separatist movements have prevalent in unitary countries as well. No doubt, federations also faced unity challenges, like, the civil war in United States and separatist movement by Quebec in Canada.

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April2,2006 was the historic day for 72 %rural Indian population,on that day the government of India has implemented Mahatma Gandhi Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) 2005. It was major step towards the inclusive growth and development. Inclusive growth is not a new concept and is said to be a combination of both, what was earlier known as growth, development and equitable distribution, all rolled into a new terminology known as inclusive growth.Inclusive growth means to get higher growth rate with low poverty,low unemployment rate and low income disparity. It is a concept which advances equitable opportunities for economic participants during the process of economic growth with benefits incurred by every section of society. Inclusivity would imply more equitable distribution of the gains achieved through higher growth.

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Capital structure is the important part of the business performance. Here paper investigates the theories of the capital structure on the basis of review, from the start-up point. The focus and considered from Modigliani and Miller’s capital structure irrelevance theory to recent theories, such as the pecking order and the market timing theory. There are various studies which have examined capital structure determinants also in the corporate finance literature. The famous theories on capital Structure are Pecking Order, Trade off theory and Agency Theory. As per these theories there are various determinants such as assets structure, profitability, growth opportunities, liquidity, company size, and dividend policywhich affect the leverage of the firm, these are possibly responsible for decision making of the capital Structure, and find that pecking theory in capital structure decision prevails in the market, but some time moderate support for the trade-off theory.

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In geography, many innovations in the application of information technologies began in the late 1950s, 1960s and early 1970s. Methods of sophisticated mathematical and statistical modeling were developed and the first remote sensing data became available. Researchers began also to envision the development of geographic information systems. The mid-1970s to early 1990s was a period of contagion. The first commercially available software for GIS became available in the late 1970s and spurred many experiments, as did the development of the first microcomputers in the early 1980s.

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Molecular biology is the branch of biology that deals with the molecular basis of biological activity. This field overlaps with other areas of biology and chemistry, particularly genetics and biochemistry. Molecular biology chiefly concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between the different types of DNA, RNA and protein biosynthesis as well as learning how these interactions are regulated. Researchers in molecular biology use specific techniques native to molecular biology but increasingly combine these with techniques and ideas from genetics and biochemistry. There is not a defined line between these disciplines.

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Retail sector occupies a prominent position in the economic development of the country. It contributes 14% of the total GDP of India. It comprises of both organised and unorganised sector. An organised sector comprises the retailers who are licensed and are registered for sales tax, income tax etc, whereas unorganised sector constitutes the traditional low volume retailers like kirana and betel shops. Unorganised retiling is predominant in India accounting for 92% of the retail sector. This creates ample of gap for the organised sector to set them in competition. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in Indian market is relatively old concept. It was introduced in Indian market in 1991 by allowing foreign investors to trade in the home country.

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Father of Nation (Mahatma Gandhi) had expressed his views and had written on numerous issues that concerned the Indian Society in particular and humanity in general. This article examines the importance and relevance of his views on issues that directly or indirectly impacts the status of women in India.

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Since the emergence of speech some 50,000 years ago, language has been the principal means through which humans have organized their activities together, reflected on them, and passed on their knowledgeable skills to successive generations. Language is thus the basis of culture and at the same time the mediator of each individuals social and intellectual development. As Halliday states, “When children learn language, they are not simply engaging in one type of learning among many; rather, they are learning the foundations of learning itself. Hence the ontogenesis of language is at the same time the ontogenesis of learning"(1993a, p.93). This remains true in school, where writing adds another important medium for learning.

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Legal instruments are in place to herald an era of accelerated nuclear energy generation in India. This enables India to carry out trade of nuclear fuel and technologies with other countries within the stipulations placed by the Nuclear Suppliers Group, granting waiver to India by these nuclear supplier countries. Besides, there would be country specific agreements. To instill confidence among the suppliers of technology and materials, a Nuclear Liability Act has been put in place to limit their liability. Besides India has also signed the Convention on Supplementary Compensation to provide for additional resource for assistance seeking indemnification for loss and injury from a nuclear installation.

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Factoring-Introduction Credit Factoring is an asset backed means of financing (tripartite agreement between the buyer, seller and the factor), whereby the account receivables are assigned to a third party called factor for a discount, releasing the tied-up capital and providing financial liberty to the Company. The origin of factoring goes back to 14th century in England. Earlier, factoring was confined to textile and garment industries, but later was spread across various industries and markets. Factoring has been defined as: “ a continuing legal relationship between a financial institution (the “factor”) and a business concern (the “client”) selling goods or providing services to trade customers (the “customers”) whereby the factor purchases the client’s book debts either without or with recourse to the client, and in relation thereto controls the credit extended to customers and administers the sales ledger.”

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A potentially tetradentate ligand has been synthesized via 2-hydroxy benzaldehyde(salicyaldehyde) and ethylene diamine. This ligand has been further reacted with cu(II) compounds to form N-N’-Ethylene-bis(salcylaldiminato)- copper(II). This complex has been further characterized by conductivity measurements, magnetic data, electronic, infrared spectral data. The results suggest that complexes formed are four co-ordinated with square planer configuration. Also the structure of complex (1) and (2) are same. Ligand bind to the central atom through two imino nitrogen and two oxygens.

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It is very important that students have the opportunity to practise new mathematics and to develop their understanding by applying new ideas and skills to new problems and new contexts. The main source of exercises for consolidation and practice is the text book. It is important to check that the examples in the exercises are graded from easy to difficult and that students don’t start with the hardest examples. It is also important to ensure that what is being practised is actually the topic that has been covered and not new content or a new skill which has not been taught before.

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The present paper presents an algorithm to find optimum time- cost trade off pairs in a fixed charge linear capacitated transportation problem with enhanced flow. Sometimes, situations arise where either reserve stocks have to be kept at supply points say, for emergencies, or there may be extra demand in the markets. In such situations, the total flow needs to be controlled or enhanced. Moreover, sometimes a fixed charge ( like set up cost for machines, landing fees at an airport, cost of renting a vehicle ) is also associated with every origin that gives rise to fixed charge problem. In this paper a special class of transportation problem is studied, where the total transportation flow is enhanced to a specified level. A numerical example is given to illustrate the developed algorithm.

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The genesis of writing is the origin of writer,and literature exists in every civilization whether ancient or modern. Every literature is made of words. Every word is written and rewritten to make legends,reality come to front. In this research paper the making of literature I.e. “word and literature”and the problem of “censorship on literature” has been highlighted,as literature exists free and gives birth to itself.The research paper is built on Nadine Gordimer’s Nobel Lecture “writing and Being” The paper will highlight the making of literature and the saga of censorship on it.

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In Present Scenario the banking industry is responding to the rapid development of on-line commerce. Today many evidences suggest that many banks are beginning to deliver credit and deposit products electronically. In addition, some large banks are developing products designed exclusively for e-commerce. We explore the possible implications of e-commerce for banks’ business activities. We find that banks are beginning to use the Internet to deliver traditional banking products in more ways that are efficient. Some banks are also investigating how they might expand their current service offerings to include some products designed exclusively for e-commerce as banks venture into the electronic arena. They are finding that new opportunities bring new operational risks and strategic risks. In this research paper, we are trying to explore the possible implications of e-commerce for banks’ business activities.

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A variety of the library evaluation methods have been developed, yet few have attempted to evaluate the evaluation methods. This thesis is a meta-evaluation: an evaluation of the other evaluations. The merits of different evaluation are analyzed. Then the relationships between the different types of the evaluation are identified, and a meta-model of library evaluation created.

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To measure economic growth or recovery, one traditionally looks to metrics such as the unemployment rate and the growth in GDP. And in terms of figuring out institutional policies that will stimulate economic growth, the focus most often is on policies that encourage investment, entrepreneurial enterprises, and reward risk-taking with appropriate returns.

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Under Indian patent law, as in most patent laws, a patent is a statutory right for an invention granted for a limited period of time to the patentee by the Government, in exchange of full disclosure of his invention for excluding others, from making, using, selling, importing the patented product or process for producing that product for those purposes without his consent. To become patentable subject matter in India.

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It is well known that R.K Narayan's Malgudi is a unique creation of his imaginative insight. He has woven an artistic web of those events which have typical Malgudian features as drawn and devised by him. He has kept firm faith in his local surroundings and doings of the South-Indian people in order to prepare his drama of events and situations. But, his Malgudi is never free from the universality of art. R.K. Narayan's artistic talent lies in weaving local details of Malgudi for preparing a universal theatre of emotions and natural reactions. Proper synthesis of the local material with the universal emotions of love, sympathy, apathy and bitterness provides unique colour to the fiction of R.K. Narayan.

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‘‘शिक्षा केवल जीविकोपार्जन का साधन है, न यह विचारों की सवंर्द्धन स्थली है, न ही नागरिकता की पाठशाला है। यह आध्यात्मिक जीवन में प्रवेश की दिशा है सत्य की खोज में लगी मानव आत्मा का प्रशिक्षण है इस प्रकार के शिक्षा मानव जीवन के सर्वांगीण विकास का आधार है। सही और गलत के मध्य फैसला करने का माध्यम है।’’

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To prevent the miscarriage of justice the constitutional framers while keeping in mind possible human mistakes even by the Judges of the highest Court, have provided scope of rehearing of a case by the same judge who has decided it.Review means to re-consider, to look again or to reexamine . In legal parlance , it is a judicial re-examination of the case by the same court. In review a judge who has disposed of the matter reviews an earlier order passed by him in certain circumstances. The main object of granting a Review of Judgement is reconsideration of the same matter in certain conditions. The power of review inheres in every court to prevent miscarriage of justice or to correct grave and palpable errors committed by it. The provision related to review constitutes an exception to general rule laid down in Order 20, Rule 3 which provides that the “judgment shall be dated and signed by the judge in the open court at the time of pronouncing it and, when once signed, shall not afterwards be altered or added to except as provided by Section 152 or on review. The Scope of power of review as envisaged under Order XLVII Rule 1 is very limited and review proceedings are not by way of an appeal and have to be strictly confined to the scope and ambit of Order XLVII Rule 1. All decrees and orders cannot be reviewed. Review is permissible is permissible only when circumstances of a substantial and compelling character make it necessary to do so.