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Volume -4 Issue - 3
Month [Year] -- [2013]
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   No of Download : 5    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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To discuss political relationships amongst personnel who were not always, strictly speaking, ‘unfree’. While these personnel could have been free, their relationships were also strongly touched with the paradigms of service associated with bandagi. On the other hand, the adjective naukari as a means to understand political culture may appear as more of a neologism. In its Persian usage the noun naukar carried some of the meanings present in its antecedent Mongol form, nökör (singular) / nököd (plural) – personal retainer, loyal friend, comrade in arms, bodyguard – and within the limited context of a dyadic relationship with a master, its meaning was very close to banda-i khāṣṣ. In its original Mongol sense, the nököd were free and honourable servants, who had voluntarily accepted service with a great lord; it had none of the pejorative meanings associated with slavery.

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The purpose of the study was to know the comparison of bone diameters of judokas at different levels of participation.20 male players of national level and 20 male players of state level of age group 20-27 years were selected as subjects for this study. Mean, Standard Deviation and ‘t’ test have been computed to compare of bone diameters of judokas at different levels of participation. The results of the study revealed that national level of judokas are found to possess more bone diameter measurements as compared to state level of judokas except ankle diameter.

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Over recent years there has been an increasing interest in the field of human capital management. Currently , the literature encourages the consideration of human capital as strategic factors, not only because they play important role in strategy implementation , also because they are beginning to the reckoned as sources of sustainable competitive advantage. Relationships between human capital management and productivity have been studied from different perspectives . This study is an attempt to investigate the extent to which Commercial Banks of India differ on aspects of human capital management practices and the key Human capital management Practices contributing to employe productivity from a sample of respondents from banks of India (foreign sector, private sector and public sector bank).

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Constructivist teaching methods are based on constructivist learning theory. Along with John Dewey, Jean Piaget researched childhood development and education. Both Dewey and Piaget were very influential in the development of informal education. Dewey’s idea of influential education suggests that education must engage with and enlarge experience and the exploration of thinking and reflection associated with the role of educators. Piaget’s role in the constructivist teaching suggest that we learn by expanding our knowledge by experiences which are generated through play from infancy to adulthood which are necessary for learning. Their theories are now encompassed in the broader movement of progressive education. Constructivist learning theory says that all knowledge is constructed from a base of prior knowledge. Children are not a blank slate and knowledge cannot be imparted without the child making sense of it according to his or her current conceptions. Therefore children learn best when they are allowed to construct a personal understanding based on experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences.

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   No of Download : 20    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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व्याकरण की दृषिट से यदि देखा जाए तो भाषा के दो रूप हैं: मौखिक(उच्चारित) एवं लिखित। भाषा के लिखित रूप में जहाँ लिपि चिàों के रूप में मूर्त संकेत प्रयुक्त होते है वहीं मौखिक रूप में इन संकेतों को ध्वनि रूप प्रदान किया जाता है। अत: मौखिक रूप में ध्वनियों का सार्थक समूह और लिखित रूप में लिपिचिàों अथवा वर्णों का सार्थक समूह शब्द कहलाता हैं शब्दगत वर्णों के अनुक्रम को ही वर्तनी कहा जाता है। डा0 केशव दत्त रुवाली भी शब्दगत वर्णों द्वारा उच्चारणानुरूप लेखन-विधान को वर्तनी या वर्ण विन्यास से अभिहीत करते हैं। वर्तनी शब्द मूलत: संस्कृत का है जिसका कोशगत अर्थ है: मार्ग, पथ, जीना, जीवन।

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   No of Download : 755    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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This paper presents how the use of recent development in Kenya and India support the mobile phones for social development in both countries. It argues that context in mobile phones can be used not only for providing them with suitable information, but also for supporting the system’s selection of appropriate interaction techniques and providing users with a tool necessary mobile applications. Thus, the paper of this chapter is to demonstrate that the use of the phone technologies in mobile applications in both countries. It will focus on the current trend.

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The very first television advertisement appeared on July 1, 1941 during a baseball game on a local New York channel. The 10-second ad advertised Bulova watches and cost a mere four dollars; it completely revolutionized television! Due to the overwhelming success of the Bulova advertisement, other companies began to realize that they needed to jump on board with their marketing as well. Businesses like Gimbel’s Department Store, Pan American World Airways, Firestone Tire, and Botany Worsted Mills advertised on television shortly thereafter. By 1948, many additional advertisers were using television spots to reach the large audience that owned television sets. The 1950s also brought about significant changes in television advertising. More advertising options became available and companies gained opportunities to sponsor entire programs that showcased their products. Kraft, Colgate, and General Electric were only a few of the companies that took advantage of this trend and sponsored their own shows.

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   No of Download : 18    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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This research paper consist of the analysis of Non-Fund based Financial Services provided by the commercial banks in India. Basically this service comes under the umbrella of Merchant Banking. We have analysed the five big banks of the Indian Banking Sector (ICICI, SBI,PNB,OBC,CANARA BANK ) Merchant banking services strengthen the economic development of a country as they acts as sources of funds and information for corporations. Considering the way the Indian economy is growing, the role of merchant banking services in India is indispensable. These financial institutes also act as corporate advisory bodies to help corporations rightly get involved in various financial activities. The need of merchant banking services in India arises from the fact that high level industrialization is taking place in the country. Some of the PSBs have formed their fully owned subsidiaries for this purpose. Analysis of merchant banking business of some PSBs clearly indicates that the merchant banking activities of the banks are showing declining trend especially after 1993-94 due to depressed capital market conditions and subdued activity in primary market.

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Lifestyle diseases are the diseases associated with the way a person or group of people lives. We are not born with them but are resulted due to our faulty living habits. These diseases are also called as diseases of civilization and appear to increase in frequency as countries become more industrialized and people live longer. They can include-Alzheimer’s diseases, atherosclerosis, asthma, some kinds of cancer, liver diseases, chronic pulmonary diseases, Type2 diabetes, heart diseases, metabolic syndrome, chronic renal failure, osteoporosis, stroke, obesity and most important and severely stress.

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Employment is generates in the process of economic growth. The rates at which the tow move are, however, not necessary similar. Economic growth is related with production of goods and services and to employ so more persons is necessary to production of product more goods and services. So it is obvious that rapid economic growth generate more employment opportunities. Economic growth with accelerating creates a suitable, sustainable and better-of condition for any economy. Therefore, the study of employment-unemployment situation seems very important. It helps to know the success of economic policies in employment creation according to needs. Objective of this paper is to review the situation of employment-unemployment in India.

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In recent years, rural markets of India have acquired significance, as the overall growth of the Indian economy has resulted into substantial increase in the purchasing power of the rural communities. The Indian Rural Market has a huge demand base and offer great opportunities to the marketers on the one side, but on the other side this alluring market will give birth to the intense competition and that to healthy competition among the various companies; this will lead to a big question mark. Apart from this, the customer of rural market is different from the urban on many parameters, some of which are literacy rate and traditional outlook due to which they are resistant to change. Thus, to survive will be a big challenge for all the players in the battle field.

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It is now almost a cliche to assert that the education needs of today and tomorrow are vastly different from those of the 19th and 20th centuries. But ideas usually become clichés when they are true. Education in the colonial era was designed to produce clerks for the bureaucracy. What was taught, and what exams rewarded, was conformity and mastery of prescribed, narrowly defined content. A questioning attitude was dangerous, and the teaching of skills other than those needed by the colonial state superfluous. After independence education was extended to a wider population (though, arguably, not wide enough) and the content prescribed was partially modified to cater to the perceived needs of both nation building and the new industrial economy. But knowledge remained scarce and was as such only. This is an immense challenge that the Indian education system faces, and we must tackle it with fresh thinking .We must discard the mandarin (bureaucratic) mentality—one that pretence as progressive but is actually colonial in its quest.

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The game and sports also need good level of physical fitness. In the modern times games and sports become power sports become power sports rather than the skill. Until and unless person doesn’t have certain level of physical fitness, he can no doubts very important aspects of the game which one has to do the mastery over it but same time to perform these tactically and strategically a person needs a lot of physical ability.

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This paper worked on a newly developed Economic Production Quantity (EPQ) model when Storage capacity is limited due to high rent in super market. But model is flexible and reliable for customer for better production in mixed environment with handling the arrogant customers. The model has incorporated as random demand, an imprecise production and shortage on space with considering the production occurred is not cent percent perfect , i.e, a fraction of produced items are defective . Therefore defective items are sold at a reduced price and the selling price of fresh units is depends on our unit production cost. Model is the modified version of General Economic Ordered Quantity (EOQ) Model for instantaneous production under shortage. The model is formulated for “maximize the average profit under optimum production cost under certain constraints on invested funds”. The constraints function has been formulated with the help of concept of differential equation when initial condition and boundary values are given. Finally this model behaves like mathematical programming problems hence can be solved by geometric programming problem for optimized the Profit function to find the value of decision variables. The sensitivity of this model can be illustrated by numerical example. This is the best fit of normal distribution for optimum reliability during inventory production . Key Words: EOQ & EPQ Model, Boundary Value Problems (BVP) of Differential Equation, Mathematical Programming (MP) & Geometric Programming Problem

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नि:शस्त्रीकरण का शाबिदक अर्थ है-'शारीरिक हिंसा के प्रयोग के समस्त भौतिक तथा मानवीय संसाधनों का उन्मूलन। यह एक व्यवस्था है जिसका उददेश्य हथियारों के असितत्व और उनकी प्रकृति से उत्पन्न कुछ विशिष्ट खतरों को कम करना है। नि:शस्त्रीकरण के प्रयास यूद्ध को पूरी तरह समाप्त करने की कलात्मक आशा कि पूर्ति के लिए नही, अपितु आश्चर्य में डाल देने वाले तथा यकायक होने वाले आक्रमणो को रोकेने के लिए किए जाते है।

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मैं द्रौपदी नहीं हूँ डा. ज्ञानी देवी जी का प्रथम कहानी संग्रह है। इस कहानी संग्रह में हमें ज्ञात होता है कि नारी की जीवनशैली में आज भी कोर्इ विशेष परिवर्तन नहीं हुआ है। उसे आज भी पूर्वकालों की तरह दासी ही समझा जाता है। वैदिककाल में नारी की सिथति उत्तम थी, परंतु जैसे-जैसे दास वर्ग का जन्म हुआ है, सित्रओं की पारिवारिक एवं सामाजिक सिथति में पतन आरम्भ हो गया है। सेवा ही नारी का मुख्य कार्य बन गया, यधपि घर का सारा काम एवं व्यवस्था अभी भी स्त्री के हाथों में है, परन्तु अपने मूल अधिकारों से वह अभी तक वंचित है।

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Financial management overlaps with the financial function of the Accounting profession. However, financial accounting is the reporting of historical financial information, while financial management is concerned with the allocation of capital resources to increase a firm's value to the shareholders.

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संगीत के क्षेत्र में तकनीक के पर्दापण ने संगीत कला के प्रचार प्रसार को सशक्त माध्यम प्रदान किए है । जब इस कला के प्रचार का कोर्इ साधान उपलब्ध नहीं था तब यह कला घेरे में सिमट कर रह गर्इ थी क्योंकि उस समय तक घरानों के अतिरिक्त जनसाधारण के लिए संगीत उपलब्ध नहीं था क्योंकि न तो संगीत सभाएं होती थी और न ही सम्मेलन थे । संगीत कला के प्रचार घूम-घूम कर ही संगीत का प्रचार कर इस कला को लोगों तक पहुंचा सकते थे । यही एकमात्र साधन था जो कि संगीत कला के प्रचार प्रसार के लिए पर्याप्त मात्र नहीं था । इससे प्रचार धीरे एवम अपेक्षाÑत छोटे पैमाने पर हो जाता था ।

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The western part of Assam and district Kokrajahr in particular is populated by various communities such as Bodos, Assomiyas, Bengalis, Rajbongshis, Santals, Rabhas, Garos, Muslims etc. with an approximate population of 8,86,999 (2011) that has been experiencing ethnic conflict for quite some time (Goswami 2001). The conflict between the communities in the western part of Assam is the major issue that is in focus today. The conflict which has erupted recently in the western part of the Bodoland Territorial Area District (BTAD), Assam has displaced the indigenous Bodos, Rajbongshis and the settler migrant Muslims from their habitats. The displaced are currently found to staying in the temporary relief camps, government institutions and other buildings. There were about 279 relief camps in Kokrajhar, Chirang and Dhubri district of Assam respectively with more than 4 lakhs inmates (The Sentinel, 2012). Although, the inhabitants of these relief camps have returned to their villages, many of them are still found to be taking shelter near the villages of their habitats. Although, the government has initiated the rehabilitation process by providing Gratuitous Relief to the affected families, some of them are still found to have been faced with acute shortage of food, drinking water, sanitation, medicine supply issues to mention a few. They are also encountering deep psychological problems and have a deep sense of insecurity even while staying in the camp site near their villages.

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सभ्य समाज एवं कल्याणकारी राज्य के उदभव के बाद मानव जीवन का कोर्इ भी पक्ष ऐसा नही रह गया है जा जनप्रतिनिधि सरकारों के कार्यक्षेत्र अथवा उनके दायित्वों की परिधि से बाहर हो। लोकतन्त्र में सरकारों को सामाजिक एवं आर्थिक विकास की योजनाएं कार्यानिवत करने, कानून व्यवस्था बनाये रखने तथा राज्य की विदेषी आक्रमण से रक्षा करने से लेकर विभिन्न कृत्यों का निर्वहन करना होता है। जनतन्त्र में सरकारों का इसके अतिरिक्त षिक्षा, स्वास्थ्य, आवास, परिवहन, संचार और लोगों के लिए रोजगार जैसी अनेक सामाजिक सेवाओं की व्यवस्था करनी होती है। जनतन्त्र में कार्यपालिका को इन कृत्यों के निर्वहन के लिए धन की आवष्यकता होती है। यह धन कहां से आए, धन की मंजूरी कौन दें? इस सार्वजनिक व्यय की पूर्ति के लिए करों, ़ऋणों, अनुदान आदि के द्वारा देष के संसाधनों में से आवष्यक धन जुटाया जाता है। जनतन्त्र में कार्यपालिका अपनी इच्छा अनुसार कर लगाकर या ऋण लेकर व्यय की पूर्ति नही कर सकती है। चूंकि राज्य के संसाधन सीमित होते है और इन दुर्लभ संसाधनों से विभिन्न सरकारी कार्यो को नियत करने हेतु उचित बजट व्यवस्था करना आवष्यक होता है।

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Indo Greek and Kushana’s are the most important chapters of our India History. It is because of these dynasties our Indian culture flourished with passion. Coins of these dynasties were totally influenced by Greek artistic but unconditionally they belong to Indian culture. The coins issued by Greek figure many of Indian deities but these were also shows the Grecian attribute who speak its own opulent history and collaboration of two different cultures.

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In recent years, the media have reported numerous high-profile cases in which individuals were convicted of and incarcerated for serious crimes they did not commit, only later to be exonerated. Many, though not most, of these exonerations occurred after post conviction DNA evidence established innocence of those convicted. To date, more than 220 individuals have been exonerated by post conviction DNA testing and released from prison; some from death row. Although researchers and scholars have long documented the problem of wrongful conviction, the use of DNA testing to exonerate innocent prisoners and the sustained media attention that it has received has increased public recognition that the criminal justice system often convicts the wrong people. Although the number of wrongful convictions continues to mount, the DNA exonerations represent only a small part of a much larger problem. For in most criminal cases, there was and is no DNA evidence available for testing. Nevertheless, the DNA exonerations provide a window into the causes of erroneous prosecution and wrongful conviction. A disturbing number of these cases involved false confessions given by innocent defendants during a psychologically coercive police interrogation.

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In 2013 the INR experienced rapid depreciation, and for the first time touched the level of Rupees 68/USD. No other currency in the world depreciated to this extent. This sort of extreme volatility is not bad for the economy, it’s hazardous. Such kind of volatility creates an environment of uncertainty and dissuades new and existing investors ergo hurting the economic growth. In the wake of these events the RBI took some measures and tried in every way to stop this fall but the fact is that RBI has no muscle to affect the exchange rate even in a faintly significant manner. This incident has shown how fragile our economy is and how easily and how close we can get to financial crisis. RBI has hitherto followed managed forex(foreign exchange) policy and never had a vision for it. But this event has exposed the Indian economy, and made it clear that the economy cannot run forever on good luck. Indian fiscal deficit is rising and crossed the danger level of 5.2 % (forecasted 2014); current account deficit has reached 4.8% of the GDP, RBI never had been able to tame inflation, India has developed strong dependence on foreign capital. India very badly needs structural reforms, but the focus seems to be absent. With this structure India is just waiting for a exogenous macro-economic shock to trigger a systemic crisis.

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The successful integration of various small and ‘Independent’ states of the Indian Union was completed soon after we got independence from the shackles of british rule, on 15 Aug, 1947. But the process of Integration in India is still on, even after the 66 years of independence. This is an Astonishing but stark truth. But another truth is more Astounding and disappointing that the process of National integration far from moving in the forward direction is taking a back course. The main challenges which are considered to be threatening to the national integration are economical imbalances and disparities, social injustice, castism, regionalism, linguism, Naxalism, Communalism, etc. But ‘Economic imbalance’ is proving to be great threat to the process of national integration.

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As we enter the 21st century, swelling demand and changing climate patterns are draining rivers and aquifers as pollution threatens the quality of what remains. The choices we make for where and how we live have enormous impacts on our well-being, economy, and natural environment.Issues in ecology are complex and do not always have clear solutions. In addition, many of the solutions that have been proposed and popularly accepted have been based on emotion, bad science or no science at all.

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Shakespeare's Measure for Measure has risen to an extraordinary diversity of critical opinion and interpretation. Various schools of criticism, whether they be theistic or secular, have responded to the play in their own ways. If some critics have seen the work as an "arch-problem" and "difficult" play, there are some other critics also who have seen the play as a "funny" work. If critics like Eileen Mackay have found the play "unsatisfactory" and "un-Shakespearean" , critics like John Masefield have gone to the extent of identifying the play as "one of the greatest works of the greatest English mind.

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The Palaeolithic period constitutes the longest phase of prehistory and covers a long period of the Pleistocene epoch from about 2 m.y.a. to 10,000 B.P. the Paleolaithic age is broadly divided into three cultural phases. LOWER PALAEOLITHIC, MIDDLE PALAEOLITHIC, and UPPER PALAEOLITHIC. This division is based on progressive improvement in tool types which gradually acquired better efficiency in operation. This gradual development in tool types is one of the most striking features that embodies the Palaeolithic culture.

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बंगाल की भूमि ने अनेक साहित्यकारों को जन्म दिया है, जिन्होंने साहित्य की सेवा की है साथ ही समाज कल्याण एवं धार्मिक उत्थान का कार्य भी किया है। इनमें उपन्यासकार शरत चन्द्र चêोपाध्याय प्रमुख हैं। उन्होंने अपने साहित्य के माध्यम से सदा ही उपन्यास का प्रतिकार किया, धार्मिक रूढि़यों पर कुठाराघात किया और नारी की सामाजिक सिथति सुधारने का प्रयास किया। यदि उनके स्वच्छन्द व्यकितत्व को अलग कर दिया जाए तो वे साहित्यकार के रूप में ऐसे महान व्यकित थे जिसे न केवल बंगाल अपितु सम्पूर्ण भारतवर्ष को गौरव की अनुभूति होती है। उनकी अनाविष्ट दृषिट, सूक्ष्म पर्यवेक्षण सामथ्र्य, सुंगभीर उपलबिध, शानित तथा विचित्र मानव चरित्र की अभिज्ञता के कारण समस्त देश उनका साहित्य पढ़कर लाभानिवत होता रहेगा।

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In developing countries, industrial development plays a key role to boost up socio-economic development that lays the foundation for economic growth and development. The industrial sector, especially the pulp and paper industry, constantly undergoes changes which in turn influences the growth pattern of a country as a whole. These industries are very significant for generating employment and enhancing socio-economic wellbeing by promoting balanced regional growth. India is not an exception on this front in general and the State of Nagaland in particular. In the State, the Nagaland Pulp and Paper Company Limited (NPPC) occupies a special status in the absence of large scale industries. This paper is an attempt to scrutinize the financial performance and study the growth trend of Nagaland Pulp and Paper Company Limited (NPPC) in Nagaland. Key words: financial performance, Nagaland Pulp and Paper Company Limited (NPPC)

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The main feature of the system of bonded labour is that the debtor pledges his person or that of a member of his family for a loan and is released only on the repayment of the debt. According to the Oxford definition of English Language bonded means – ‘thing restraining bodily freedom’. Further, in the report of Commissioner of Schedules Castes and Scheduled Tribes the bonded labor system has been defined as-

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The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of different cooking methods i.e. soaking, germination, pressure cooking and microwave cooking on the antioxidant activity of commonly consumed pulses namely; Bengal gram whole, black gram whole, green gram whole, moth beans and red kidney beans was studied. Raw and processed pulses were analyzed for their proximate composition. The crude protein content of raw pulses ranged between 17±0.13 to 23.6±0.45 with the mean value of 21.6±1.42g/100g, being lowest in Bengal gram whole and highest in black gram whole. Germination resulted in an increase in the crude protein content whereas there was slight decrease in case of other processed samples. Ash content of raw pulses ranged from 2.7±0.03 to 3.7±0.05 g/100g with mean value of 3.36±0.18 g/100g with minimum value in Bengal gram whole and maximum in red kidney beans.

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Present study aims at knowing the behavior pattern of businessman in their investment patterns, and to know about the awareness level of business man regarding various investment options in the market, and the reasons for not being investing in the market. This would help the consultancy/ financial managers how to make aware and change their mind from traditional to modern way of making investment. And research also will help to make aware of different products and services offered by the karvy. It also generated the data base for the company, and to find prospective customers for the company.

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In the face of globalisation, firms learn to operate their activities with a number of geographically dispersed operations. The internationalisation process of the enterprises is one of the primary sites of attention. Discoveries in telecommunications and computer facilities lessen the costs of cross-border operations and encourage firms to internationally disperse their activities. In today’s dynamic world, the geographical boundary between countries becomes irrelevant. Most firms are driven to internationalise their economic activities by global forces It appears that internationalisation is an identifiable evolutionary sequential process. Firms internalise their economic activities for a host of different motives. This paper is intended to investigate the determinants and consequences of internationalisation of business. Keywords: Internationalisation, liberalisation, business environment, globalisation

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The purpose of this study was to examine the emotional intelligence and general health amongst teachers of both sex (male & female), different cadres (Primary, Secondary & College) and having different self –efficacy beliefs (High and Low). Initially, 900 teachers from different cities of Haryana state of India were contacted and General self-efficacy scale was administered to identify the teachers with High self-efficacy and Low self-efficacy beliefs. The final size was taken with a total of 300 subjects on basis of their scores on General Self-efficacy Scale following the median criteria; scores above median were categories as High self-efficacy and scores below median as Low self-efficacy. The same treatment was given to both Sexes and different cadres as well. To select the sample units, systematic random sampling was used. The obtained scores were analysed by computing Mean, S.D and 2x3x2 factorial analysis of variance. It was observed that sex and self-efficacy had significant main effect on general health at 0.01 levels. It was also found that sex x cadre and sex x self-efficacy had significant interactive effect on Emotional Intelligence and General health at 0.01 and 0.05 levels respectively. Key words: emotional intelligence, general health, self-efficacy, cadres, sex

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India’s public sector banks employ some 700,000 people, Most of the employees had joined the industry in the 1970s, after a group of private banks was nationalized, and many of whom are to retire in the next few years. The business has grown manifold in the past decade, but employee strength has dwindled. The attrition rate is high in PSBs and keeping in mind the large number of retirements in the coming three to four years and massive branch expansion there is a need to address this issue of attrition. The present study aimed at addressing high employee attrition in the above sector by identifying the Critical Factors which causes high attrition. The data has been collected through a structured questionnaire survey. The study identified 7 factors affecting high employee attrition in banking industry. Likert’s scale and z-test were applied to analyze the collected data. It is found that the attrition factor employee’s salary along with transfer and postings are the most critical factor affecting high attrition in the Banking sector in Delhi. Keywords: PSBs, employee attrition, autonomy, turnover.

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In the 21st century, every Economy is trying to enhance its growth and development. It is clear that for the rapid economic development trade plays an important role, and it has also been called trade as the engine of growth. Since trade is the main determinant of economic development and now-a-days South-East Asian Nation has become an important has become an important zone because of its market and growing economy. India announced its Look-East Policy in 1991, which is an attempt to increase its engagement with the East-Asian countries. ASEAN, which is a geo-political and economic organization with 10 members, which was formed in August 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Since then the membership has expanded to include Brunei-Darussalam, Cambodia, the Laos Peoples democratic republic Myanmar and Vietnam.

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The temporal relation between stock Index and Index futures has been and continues to be of interest to regulators, academicians and practitioners alike for a number of reasons such as market efficiency, volatility and arbitrage. In perfectly efficient markets profitable arbitrage should not exist as prices adjust instantaneously and fully to new information. Hence, new information disseminating into the market place should be immediately reflected in spot and futures prices by triggering trading activity in one or both markets simultaneously so that there should be no systematic lagged responses. However, there is yet another reason that futures markets potentially provide an important function of price discovery to help improve efficiency of the market. If so, then futures prices and movements thereof should contain useful information about subsequent spot prices beyond that already embedded in the current spot price.

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This research has the purpose to present a study to highlight a kinematic analysis of high dribble of basketball players. Material Method: The paper is an uncertained study performed on six basketball university level players volunteered to participate as subject in the study. The age of players was above 18 years. Result: The mean angle of the downward phase during the high dribble at wrist was 221, at the elbow was 102.5, at shoulder was 33.5, at hip was 152.83, at knee was 150.83 and at ankle was 82. The mean angle of the upward phase during the high dribble at wrist was 199.6, at the elbow was 98.33, at shoulder was 23.16, at knee was 102.66, and at ankle was 99.5.

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All over the world, unemployment is a major issue of analysis today. The gap between the employment opportunity and the number of growing labour force is a serious problem of almost all the countries of the world. Due to stagnant or shrinking employment opportunities in the organized sector, unorganised sector is the only place where the vast mass of unemployed people can find their livelihood all over the world. In India more than 90 per cent of the workforce is employed in unorganized sector.

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In this paper, we examine and elaborate sustainable agriculture development in India. Sustainability is best viewed as a socially instituted process of adaptive change in which innovation is a necessary element. In the current scenario, India has been witnessing a blending pace of growth and development. There is talk of the country leapfrogging into the league of developed nations sooner than later. But this growth has raised concerns from sundry quarters as regards its basic texture and health. Experts are now calling for “Sustainable Development” and the term has gained currency in the last few years. Inspite of Agriculture Sector, there is fast growth in various sectors. So agriculture remains the backbone of the Indian economy. This paper attempts to tackle and explore the issue of sustainable development in agriculture in India.

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A recession has many attributes that can occur simultaneously and includes declines in component measures of economic activity (GDP) such as consumption, investment, government spending, and net export activity. These summary measures reflect underlying drivers such as employment levels and skills, household savings rates, corporate investment decisions, interest rates, demographics, and government policies.

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Out of three organs of the government, the Parliament is the legislative organ of the Union Government. As India has adopted the Parliamentary form of government; there is a close relationship between the Parliament and the Council of Ministers. The party which enjoys the majority in the Lok Sabha forms the government. All the Ministers are required to be the members of the Parliament. The government formed will have to act as per Constitutional mandate.

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One of the essential foundations for creating a successful company over the long term is to identify technological trends from an early stage and to exploit the opportunities that new technologies offer for product innovations. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have been considered one of the ‘driving forces’ of modern economies due to their multifaceted contributions in terms of technological innovations, employment generation, export promotion, etc. Of these, the ability of SMEs to innovate assumes significance because innovation lends competitive edge to firms, industries and ultimately, economies.

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The role of the human perception is one of the most important questions.If we would be able to understand how the human brain perceives information and operate it,and how do we make our decisions,we could more precisely make the future forecasts and increase our efficiency.We obtain information from the external world from our senses;taste,hearing,smell,touch,sight.Than we somehow integrate and analyse perceived information and make our decision.Decision is an “outcome of mental processes(Cognitive process)leading to the selectionof a course of action among several alternatives.Every decision making process produces a final choice’.How do we make a decision or even better to ask what leads us to make a decision?

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There has been a growing interest in the determinants of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows in developing countries like India as FDI is considered one of the most stable components of capital flows. There are so many determinants of FDI inflows viz. market size, portfolio diversification, resource location, differential rate of return, foreign exchange reserves, internationalisation, trade openness, government regulations, political stability, tax policies, inflation, industrial organizations, level of external indebtedness and foreign exchange rate etc. in the economy as suggested by existing literature available on this issue. The purpose of the present study is to empirically examine the major determinants of FDI inflows into India. The variables examined for the study are gross domestic product (GDP), foreign exchange reserves (FER), external debt (ED), inflation rate (INFR), exchange rate (EXCH) and trade openness (TO) i.e. sum of exports and imports as a percentage of GDP. The present study employs factor analysis to identify the major determinants of FDI inflows into India.

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Homo sapiens seem to have had only a marginal environmental impact until relatively recently. The global population was low and fairly stable, and the main use of natural resources was for stone, bone, and wooden tools. The shift from hunting and gathering to settled agriculture that began about 10,000 years ago was a profound turning point in global environmental history. The global population at this time was probably a mere ten million or so. The food surpluses from settled agriculture helped populations expand into civilizations (cities).

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समर्थ: पदविधि: पाणिनीय व्याकरण का एक अत्यन्त महत्त्वपूर्ण सूत्र है यह अत्यन्त व्यापक है। इसकी व्यापकता विभक्ति विधान, समास, तद्धित आदि वृत्तियों में हैं। इसके महत्त्व को ध्यान में रखते हुए आचार्य पतञ्जलि पूरे एक आह्निक का उपयोग किया है। अत: प्रकृत सूत्र को समझने के लिए पद, विधि, पदविधि से सम्बद्ध स्थल आदि की चर्चा अत्यंत आवश्यक है।

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भारतीय शाब्दिकों ने शब्द को ब्रह्मस्वरूप माना है, जिससे सृष्टि की उत्पत्ति होती है। व्याकरण में शब्द निर्माण की प्रक्रिया में प्रमुख तीन घटकों में प्रत्यय एक महत्त्वपूर्ण घटक है। जिससे लघुता से शब्दसिद्धि होती है। शब्द में प्रमुख घटक प्रकृति होती है। इस प्रकार शास्त्र में प्रकृति और प्रत्ययार्थ के ज्ञान से पदार्थज्ञान किया जाता है। प्रकृति और प्रत्यय साथ-साथ ही अर्थों को कहते हैं, लेकिन उन दोनों में प्रत्ययार्थ प्रधान होता है। अत: इस न्याय से यहाँ प्रत्यय का विवेचन किया जाता है। इसके अन्तर्गत हम प्रत्यय की अवधारणा, परिभाषा, अर्थ, भेद इत्यादि विभिन्न विषयों पर विचार करेंगे।

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The paper deals in credit risk management in which rating of credit risk is done in order to assess and control the overall loss within the limits sustainable by the capital of the bank which is very often referred to as the risk appetite of the bank. Effective credit risk management is a critical component of a bank’s overall risk management strategy and is essential to the long-term success of any banking organization. Having understood the broad parameters of the credit rating I have also learnt that there are various kinds of risks (both internal and external) involved in estimating the rating of a particular borrower or company which are the important factors which are to be taken into consideration to reduce the risk involved of default by borrower. The overall process of credit risk management includes four major functions risk identification, risk measurement, risk control and risk monitoring.

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The present investigation is an exploratory one which aims at studying the attitude towards teaching profession of prospective teachers. The study was conducted in Rohilkhand region and covered 400 B.Ed. prospective teachers (200 each from govt and self-financing colleges). When attitude towards teaching profession of prospective teachers was considered as the dependent variable; the variables like gender, academic background and economic status were considered as independent variable.

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"Cryptography" is a benediction to information processing and communications; it helps people to store information securely and the private communications over long distances. Crypto virology is the study of applications of cryptography to build the malicious software. It is an investigation, how modern cryptographic tools and paradigms can be used to strengthen, develop and improve new malicious software attacks. Crypto virology attacks have been categorized as: give malware enhanced privacy and be more robust against reverse-engineering, secondly give the attacker enhanced anonymity while communicating with deployed malware. This paper presents the idea of ``Crypto virology'' which introduce a twist on how cryptography can also be used offensively.

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Glocalization1 was the fancy name given to the trend where big companies initially developed products at home and then launched them globally with some customizations. This was the popular trend when other developing countries did not offer much market opportunity. Tables have turned now though – emerging economies like China and India are growing rapidly while rich nations are slowing down. Now, lets look at the opposite of the Glocalization approach – Reverse Innovation!

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Environment awareness is about being conscious of the world around you. Having concern for the world and the environment is what environment awareness is all about living a ‘green life style is the main concern of environmental awareness. People around the world are facing unprecedented pressure on their natural environment. To ensure thoughtful decision on complex environmental issues, we need environmentally aware population. Changing demographics advancing technology and global perspective all complete for our attention and awareness.

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Now Indians have to pay more for all imports like crude oil. Gold etc. even if the prices of these goods in US $ had remained the same. It means we have to pay more money to buy or purchase or exchange one US Dollar Impact of Depreciation and Appreciation of Rupee What is the impact of Depreciation and Appreciation of Rupee on the Indians living in India? For this we are assuming that initially the exchange rate of US $ is ` 50/-

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The purpose of the study was to assess self confidence among female volleyball players of different levels. A total of 60 volleyball players (30 each for inter college & inter university level) were selected for the purpose of the study. The psychological variable of self confidence was assessed using TSCI. The data was computed and analyzed using descriptive statistic. Further to compare the significant difference between the inter college and inter university volleyball players on the psychological variable of self confidence ‘t’ test was used. The result indicated that there was no significant difference between the inter college and inter university level female players. Key notes: - Self confidence, descriptive statistic.

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साम्प्रदायिकता की कोई सर्वमान्य परिभाषा नहीं दी जा सकती क्योंकि विभिन्न विश्लेषको ने इसकी परिभाषा विभिन्न आयामों के आधार पर की है। आॅक्सफोर्ड शब्दकोश के अनुसार इसका अर्थ है समुदाय का समुदाय के लिए। सुनील कुमार अग्रवाल साम्प्रदायिकता को सकारात्मक और नकारात्मक सोच के दृष्टिकोण के माध्यम से देखते हैं। उनके अनुसार, ‘‘सकारात्मक सोच के अन्तर्गत परिभाषा का तात्पर्य होगा किसी व्यक्ति की अपने समुदाय के सामाजिक-आर्थिक विकास के प्रति-प्रतिबद्धता। परन्तु नकारात्मक दृष्टिकोण मंे इसका तात्पर्य धर्म के शोषणकारी प्रयोग द्वारा समूह विशेष के सामाजिक-आर्थिक स्वार्थ की सिद्धि करना है।

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As integration of markets is increasing, companies around the world are in need of accomplishing there business in a manner to coincide with the international corporate activities. A higher level of comparability and quality of financial statements required because of an increased international audience and their unfamiliarity with different national domestic accounting standards that the financial statements are produced under. If the investors and stakeholders are not able to obtain an adequate and transparent view on the selected companies, extra cost in form of lost potential capital or investment opportunity will occure as a result of confidence in the companies. Harmonization of accounting standards has become a highly demanded issue of discussion and debate among accounting professionals around the globe. The problem deals with the need of harmonization of accounting standards in practices. The basic aim is to depict and analyse the developments in Indian accounting standards and the need for the adaptation of IFRSs. Keywords: IFRS, Financial statements, stakeholders, accounting standards

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This study is about to understand the presentation of the users through their profile. Identity formation on social network is new trend among the internet users. This notion develops a concern for the researcher also to examine the nature of the users on the site. So this study is to know the self-identity or self-discloser of the Facebook user in the virtual world. Method for the data collection was Content analysis, 80 facebook users was selected between the period of seven days from March 15 to 21(2013). Key findings suggest that users are very conscious about their self-discloser through their basic information and age was not found the main factor to engage with virtual world.

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The library network deals with the development of software for library automation, automation of the member libraries, retro-conversion of records, cooperative acquisition, creating union catalogue, development of database of the holdings in member libraries, conducting training, workshops and seminar, providing DDS, Email, CD-ROM, internet access facilities. Indian information professionals, education specialists and scientists have realized that the time has come to share the information resources and to coordinate mechanisms. This has resulted in discernible change in the information scenario in India. A large number of library resource sharing networks like the Metropolitan Area Networks such as CALIBNET in Calcutta, DELNET in Delhi, BONET in Bombay, PUNENET in Pune, MALIBNET in Madras, HYLIBNET in Hyderabad, ADNET in Ahmedabad, and countrywide ones like ERNET (Educational and Research Institutions), INFLIBNET (Universities and Research Institutions) and DESINET (Defence Laboratories), and sectoral ones like BTISNET (Biotechnology Networks) etc. are under various stages of conceptualization, design, development and implementation.

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This study is an attempt to understand the concept of entrepreneurship, its key aspects, and key traits of successful entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship has become a much sought after option today. An entrepreneur is a person who performs various functions. He recognizes the market potential of a product of a product or a service. He is the driving force behind the growth and success of his enterprise. Concepts of intrapreneurship, micropreneurship, E-cells have been discussed in brief.

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CSR is a process by which managers adopt appropriate business processes and strategies for the common good of the stakeholders. Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability are two different subjects and deal separately with the MOU evaluation. Dealing with the two concepts separately does not make any practical sense because these two subjects are linked closely with each other from the business point of view. Now, they have been clubbed together in one set of guidelines.

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शक्ति के प्रसङ्ग में कौण्डभट्‌ट पदमात्र में ही अतिरिक्त शक्ति का समर्थन करते हैं,1 जिस प्रकार इन्द्रियों में अपने-अपने विषयों को ग्रहण करने की अनादि योग्यता है,उसी प्रकार शब्दों का अर्थों के साथ अनादि सम्बन्ध होता है। अर्थात्‌ जिस प्रकार आँख में प्रत्यक्ष करने की अनादि कारणता है, उसी प्रकार शब्दों में भी अर्थबोधन की अनादि कारणता है, वही योग्यता है, और वही शक्ति हैं।

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India has presently entered a high-growth phase of 8-9 per cent per annum, from an intermediate phase of 6 per cent since the early 1990s. The growth rate of real GDP averaged 8.6 per cent for the four-year period ending 2006-07; if one considers the last two years, the growth rates are even higher at over 9 per cent. There are strong signs that the growth rates will remain at elevated levels for several years to come. This strengthening of economic activity has been supported by higher rates of savings and investment. While the financial sector reforms helped strengthening institutions, developing markets and promoting greater integration with the rest of the world, the recent growth phase suggests that if the present growth rates are to be sustained, the financial sector will have to intermediate larger and increasing volume of funds than is presently the case. It must acquire further sophistication to address the new dimensions of risks.

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The Early Modern period in England – by which we mean, very roughly, 1550-1660 – was a time of immense intellectual, geographical and literary expansion. The period offers us a double perspective: looking back to classical learning and achievement, and using that as a model for the present, and offering us a glance forward to what we now think of as ‘the modern’ – that is, of modern subjectivities, sexualities, politics and cultures.

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Vijay Tendulkar is one of the four prominent dramatists who emerged in 1960 on the literary horizon of India. The other three are Mohan Rakesh in Hindi, Badal Sircar in Bengali and Girish Karnad in Kannada. He has been the most influential dramatist and theatre personality in Marathi for almost four decades. He started his career as a dramatist in the mid-fifties. Many of his plays have been translated and produced in major Indian languages. Arundhati Banerjee observes,

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In this study, a comparison has been done between the returns of Value Stocks and Growth Stocks during 2009-2013, when Indian Equity Market was in the revival phase. This paper evaluates the returns by implementing certain trading rules. Returns from different trading rules have been an important part of the study of finance literature. Although The EMH( Efficient Market Hypothesis ) neglects any unusual returns from trading strategies which are based on the past information related to stock prices and financials, many researchers have proved otherwise and shown abnormal returns by implementing simple trading rules. In this comparative study has between the returns of. Growth stocks and Value stocks, the main finding is that the returns of these differently priced stocks are significantly different, and the returns from Value stocks are better than Growth stocks.

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In this era of globalization and liberalization each and every nation is trying to liberalize its economic policies in order to attract investments not only from its domestic players, but also from all across the globe and India is not out of this space. The economic policy- 1991 of India first proposed retail reforms by allowing Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), with the hope that FDI in Indian retail may provide benefit through development of backend infrastructure like cold chain, enhanced supply chain with minimal wastage and minimization of the middle man concept, and larger employment opportunities. 100% FDI was already been allowed both in wholesale ‘cash and carry’ and single brand retail in India after several attempt to open up the sector to FDI, and abruptly on 14th September 2012, the previous indefinitely suspended 51% FDI decision in multi-brand retail is finally endorsed with a historic decision towards retail sector reform, despite strong opposition from government’s key-ally, opposition and left parties, and also finally cleared the Parliament hurdle (both Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha) by means of debate & voting in the Winter Session-2012 of Parliament. However, Indian government should take care of its decision regarding this transformation and revolution along with safeguarding the health of the great Indian retail sector.

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This paper analyses regional disparities amongst major states in India to find out if they are on a convergence or further divergence course. The human development is not equal over the nation are any regions, it is spatialline quality refers to the uneven distribution of socio-economic variables across India.Measuringspatial inequality usually involves calculating their socio economic parameters. The government of India has lunched many socio-economic programmes like, education, health, work and supply of electricity for all villages, irrigation for every piece of land etc. for development of human resource. Urbanization

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Agriculture is the major source of livelihood for the bulk of Indian rural population. It employs nearly 52 percent of the total workforce and shares almost 14 percent of the Gross Domestic Product of India. It is also an important source of raw material and demand for many industrial products. India’s agriculture sector is characterized by traditional, subsistence and livelihood, rain fed farming, food grain oriented, lacking in diversification and commercialization.

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The concept of goal orientation was developed to describe variability in dispositional or situational goal preferences that an individual implicitly sets for him/herself in achievement situations. Two goals perspectives are related to the conception of ability adopted by an individual and this reflect how the child defines success and judged his or her competence i.e., task orientation & ego orientation. In the present study we strived to find out and compare the orientation and ego orientation among the sports player of open skill & closed skill sports. A total of 120 sportspersons and the average age 18-28years, who had participated at interuniversity level and studied in various courses in University of Delhi, were selected as subjects.

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Until the mid-nineties, a cosy status quo existed within the gambling industry, with casino tycoons hoarding much of the top Vegas dollar and bookmakers operating on a broad range of scales, from local companies to nationwide brands. Consumers visited casinos, attended bookies, did all their gambling face-to-face with their service providers.

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The aim of this study is to identify and evaluate the different factors which effect the patient satisfaction regarding the health services in health care centres or hospitals. The findings suggest that patient experience was significantly associated with the health care system. The domains such as prompt attention, quality of basic amenities, support ( access to family), skills and doctors behaviour were some of the factors which reflect their experience of care. The responses of patient were analysed by using average.

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Infrared spectroscopy exploits the fact that molecules absorb specific frequencies that are characteristic of their structure. These absorptions are resonant frequencies, i.e. the frequency of the absorbed radiation matches the transition energy of the bond or group that vibrates. The energies are determined by the shape of the molecular potential energy surfaces, the masses of the atoms, and the associated vibronic coupling.

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Sport is played as an enjoyable part of peoples leisure time and also people play sports to become fit and healthy. There are many sports to choose from such as soccer, baseball, ice hockey and boxing etc. This gives people a variety of choices to choose from, allowing people to have fun and keep fit. This makes sport a tool for promotion human health. Many researchers have resulted that “common” health issues and diseases for an example obesity, mental illness, diabetes, cancers can be prevented by experiencing a good mount of physical activities. In developing countries sport provide opportunities for health education such as the class “Sport Science”. We all know that spread of AIDS is very big and is a major problem which is likely resulted because of the lack of proper health education.

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An important thrust area is Chemical Biology which combines the fields of synthetic chemistry, molecular biology, and molecular imaging, to create novel chemical tools for probing biological systems. Visualizing bio-molecules in vivo allows early non-invasive diagnosis and more importantly brings forth most sought insights into disease onset mechanisms. Our department has a unique confluence of teams working on synthetic chemistry, materials, and spectroscopy focusing on developing new optical imaging techniques. This allows us to bring in synthetic chemistry insights to develop strategic chemical probes for molecular imaging and also test them for in vivo imaging applications. Another approach for imaging crucial biomarkers is to directly visualize bio-molecules in a label-free manner. We have been able to directly excite neurotransmitters with multiphoton excitation, and have been able to observe their dynamics in living cells and in brain tissue.

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Forensic accounting has come into limelight due to rapid increase in financial frauds and white-collar crimes. But, it is a largely untrodden area in India. The integration of accounting, auditing and investigative skills creates the speciality known as forensic accounting. The opportunities for the forensic accountants are growing fast; they are being engaged in public practice and are being employed by insurance companies, banks, police forces, government agencies, etc. This article seeks to examine the meaning and nature, activities and services rendered, core knowledge and personal skills required for forensic accounting as a specialised field in the accountancy profession. Indeed, there is a future in forensic accounting as a specialised area of consulting.

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Arundhati Roy in her first novel The God of Small Things shows her ingenuity in both narrative management and market management by making it the most materialistic and popular novel of the decade. By bagging the coveted Booker Prize of 1997, making the media and the academia the world over hysterical about it she has established the fact that a novelist has to be skilled not only his/her own craft of novel writing but also in publicity and market management. Perhaps the old days of Raja Rao, R.K. Narayan and M.R. Anand have gone. Now P.R.O factor plays an important role in making a writer. Most of the high profile novelists hire the services of professional agents in the world market. Roy caught the nerves of the time and her novel proved ‘luckier’ than what luck itself could have expected.

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The God of Small Things is a remarkable indictment of patriarchy and the injustice and oppression faced by woman in the androcentric society. Woman is victimized everywhere: as a daughter in her parent''s house, as a wife in her husband''s house, as a worker in a factory or as an employee in an office, whether in India or America. Ammu is a valiant fighter for sexual freedom, though the options open to her in the male-dominated order are not viable at all. She grabs the first opportunity for escaping from the oppressive atmosphere of her parents'' house in Ayemenem and rushes into a loveless marriage. It is another thing that as a consequence of this step she actually finds herself out of the frying-pan into the fire.

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ENGLAND Basically, judicial review is the assertion of rule of law as controlling state action. It is generally asserted that the institution of judicial review originated in U.S.A, but a deeper analysis reveals the fact that this is true only in a very limited sense because historically, the origin of this institution can be traced to the English legal history. When the major portion of law in England consisted of common law, the judges asserted that the State’s action including the exercise of royal prerogative must confirm to the common law. On the morning of Sunday, November 10, 1607, a remarkable interview took place between Sir Edward Coke, Chief Justice of the common Pleas and King James I. this is what the Coke says happened:

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ABSTRACT : A mutual fund is a professionally managed type of collective investment scheme that pools money from many investors and invests it in stocks, bonds, short-term money market instruments, and/or other securities. A Mutual Fund is a trust that pools the savings of a number of investors who share a common financial goal. The money collected & invested by the fund manager in different types of securities depending upon the objective of the scheme. These could range from shares to debentures to money market instruments. The income earned through these investments and its unit holders in proportion to the number of units owned by them (pro rata) shares the capital appreciation realized by the scheme. Thus, a Mutual Fund is the most suitable investment for the common person as it offers an opportunity to invest in a diversified, professionally managed portfolio at a relatively low cost. Anybody with an investible surplus of as little as a few thousand rupees can invest in Mutual Funds. Each Mutual Fund scheme has a defined investment objective and strategy

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ABSTRACT This paper elaborates on various aspects of Corporate bond market in India. Firstly, It aims to provide the present status of corporate bond market in India. It also aims to provide Corporate bond market size, total issues through public issues or private placements and composition of bond issued through private placements in recent years. It also aims to provide a need for vibrant bond market and some reasons for Under-developed corporate bond market in India. Lastly, it concludes with some steps for developing corporate bond market in India.

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The Consumer decision process may not always develop in a carefully planned fusion. It is important to understand other theories and approaches to how consumers make decisions and when they might apply. Level of Consumer Involvement Consumer involvement can be defined in terms of the level of engagement and active processing undertaken by the consumer in responding to a marketing stimulus (e.g. from viewing an ad or evaluating a product or service.)

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Although, gender discrimination has been banned by the Constitution and women have been guaranteed political equality with men, yet there is a difference between the constitutional rights and the rights enjoyed in reality by women. Even after half a century of independence, barring a few exceptions, women have mostly remained outside the domain of power and political authority. Although they constitute about half of the citizen and over the years their participation by way of voting has increased, yet their participation and representation in law making and law implementing bodies are not very satisfactory. No doubt the 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment acts have provided access to women in the decision making process at the grass-root level but their representation in the Parliament and state legislatures is woefully poor. Insecurity does not allow the women leaders to identify leadership at the grass-root level.

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In keeping with its past and present policy objectives, the government has launched a number of programmes focused on empowerment of rural women. ‘In 1998, a scheme was started that aimed at empowering women in rural areas. It was called Swashakti—the Rural Women Development and Empowerment Project. In 2001, the government launched Swayamsiddha—the Integrated Women Empowerment Scheme that aims at holistic empowerment of women through awareness generation. In 2002, Swadhar was launched to make rural women economically strong. Under the Ninth Plan (1997-2002), ‘Empowerment of Women’ became one of the nine primary objectives of development. India has heralded the New Millennium by pronouncing the year 2001 as Women’s Empowerment Year.’ Under the provisions of ‘The Women (Empowerment for Equal Participation) Bill 2005, it is stated that reservation for women in local bodies like village panchayats, municipalities etc. is not enough.

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In the changing economic and business environment characterized by speed, flexibility and responsiveness to customers, ‘size’ has a lot to contribute to staying ahead in the competition. It is in this context that mergers and acquisitions (M & A’s) as a tool to gain competitive strength comes into the forefront with ‘Partnering for competitiveness’ being a recognized strategic argument for the same. In fact, as Michael Porter (1985) states, ‘the primary reason for M & A’s is to achieve synergy by integrating two business units in a combination that will increase competitive advantage’. Competitive advantage accrues since through M & A’s, firms seek strategic positioning, industry-wide consolidation, increased market share and shareholder value, synergy through economies of scale, revenue enhancement, risk reduction, shared cost of product development and improved access to markets and new technologies. However, it is also a fact that many M &A’s have produced disappointing results with three out of four mergers and acquisitions failing to achieve their financial and strategic objectives. While many reasons have been advanced for the failure ranging from financial, organizational, to people related; it remains true that M & A’s pose strategic challenges for both academicians and researchers.

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Economic reforms in India were introduced in 1991 by the congress government Led by Mr. P.V. Narshimha Rao. There had been near unanimity among major political parties on the implementation of economic performs it may be pointed out that a consensus had been achieved in the country to introduce and implement economic reforms so as to accelerate the process of development.

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Schiff base from salicyaldehyde and ethylene diamine(en) has beensynthesized and further complexed with Nickel(II) and Cobalt(II). The complexes were chartacterized by electronic,infrared (vibrational) spectroscopy and conductance meaurements. Further a single crystal X-ray diffraction pattern of Ni complex was analysed. The structures of these complexes were found to be square planar.

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Faridabad is the biggest urban agglomeration of the Haryana State consisting of the old municipal town of Faridabad, Ballabgarh, and the New Industrial Town (NIT) along with 38 revenue villages. Faridabad is a southeastern town in the state of Haryana. It was founded in 1607 AD by Sheikh Farid, Emperor Jahangir’s treasurer. Sheikh Farid built a fort and a mosque and slowly the town grew in size. Later, it became the headquarters of a pargana which was held in jagir by the Ballabgarh ruler. Faridabad is geographically situated at 280 25' 16" north latitude and 77018' 28" east longitude on the Delhi–Mathura National Highway No. 2 at a distance of 32 km. from Delhi, The town is bounded on the north by Delhi State, on the east by Agra and the Gurgaon canals and on the west by the Aravali Hills.

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भारत में संघात्मक शासन प्रणाली को अपनाया गया है। भारतीय संविधान के भाग प् के प्रथम तीन अनुच्छेदों में संघ और उसके राज्य क्षेत्रों का उल्लेख है। भारतीय संघ को संसार के संघात्मक संविधानों में विशेष स्थान प्राप्त है। भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कांग्रेस व मुस्लिम लीग के बीच 1916 के लखनऊ समझौते में भारतीय समाज के भावी संघीय स्वरूप को में स्वीकार कर लिया गया। 1928 में मोतीलाल नेहरू के नेतृत्व में गठित, अखिल भारतीय समिति, गोलमेज सम्मेलनों तथा ब्रिटिश कैबिनेट मिशन तक की बातचीत में केन्द्र व राज्यों के बीच शक्तियों के बंटवारे के प्रश्न पर विचार किया गया। भारतीय संविधान में कहीं भी ‘संघ’ शब्द का प्रयोग नहीं किया गया है। संविधान के अनुच्छेद प् में भारत को ‘राज्यों का संघ’ कहा गया है। अपने प्रारम्भिक वर्षों में भारतीय संघ व्यवस्था की प्रमुख विशेषता थी - केन्द्र राज्य सहयोग।

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भारतीय समाज में होने वाले परिवर्तन एवं समाज को समझने के लिए प्रमुख भारतीय समाज शास्त्री एम0 एन0 श्री निवास का प्रमुख योगदान है। श्री निवास रेड क्लिफ ब्राउन के परम शिष्यों में से एक माने जाते हैं। श्री निवास ने सन् 1942 में रेड क्ल्फि ब्राउन के सुझाव पर मैसूर के रामपूरा गांव का अध्ययन किया था। उनके विषय थे - ”विवाह और परिवार”। उनकी यह पुस्तक ”मैरिज एण्ड फैमिली” इन मैसूर के नाम से जानी जाती है। प्रकार्यात्मक दृष्टिकोण का प्रभाव श्री निवास की पुस्तक ”रिलिजन एण्ड सोसाइटी अमंग दि कूर्गस आॅफ साऊथ इंडिया” है। श्री निवास ने इस पुस्तक में धर्म के संबंध को वृहद् सामाजिक संगठन के संदर्भ में देखा है।

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महाभारत हमारे राष्ट्र का संस्कृत भाषा में लिखा गया एक अत्यन्त प्राचीन ग्रंथ है। इसके रचयिता कृष्ण द्वैपायन वेदव्यास हैं। वेदव्यास का यह ग्रंथ जिस शैली से लिखा है उससे यह ग्रंथ एक इतिहास काव्य सि( होता है। यह ठीक उसी तरह का इतिहास काव्य है जिस तरह का इतिहास काव्य रामायण है। रामायण इक्ष्वांकु वंश का इतिहास काव्य है और महाभारत भरतवंश का महाकाव्य है।

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मानवीय संसाधनों के अन्तर्गत केवल जनसंख्या के आकार को ही नहीं सम्मिलित करते बल्कि इसके अन्तर्गत जनसंख्या वृद्धि पर, जनसंख्या का घनत्व, लिंग अनुपात, साक्षरता अनुपात, आयु संरचना, जनसंख्या का व्यवसायिक विभाजन, शिक्षा प्रशिक्षण, कौशल निर्माण व साहसिक योग्यता आदि का अध्ययन भी सम्मिलित किया जाता है। मानवीय संसाधनों की इन विशेषताओं का आर्थिक विकास से क्या सम्बन्ध है, अथवा ये किसी देश या प्रदेश के आर्थिक विकास को किस प्रकार प्रभावित कर सकते हैं, इन सभी तथ्यों का विश्लेषण करना आवश्यक होता है। विकासशील देश में जनांकी सम्बन्धी निम्न विशेषताएँ पायी जाती हैंः

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Cultivated crops are usually grown in combinational association (Weaver, 1954). Crop combinations or associations are now recognized as important typological characteristics of agriculture (Pande and Saxena >1972). Due to physical and cultural variety of land, the farmers of a region grow many crops rather than a single crop. Therefore the distributional pattern of crops gives lift up spatial prevalence of certain crops or combination of certain crops resultant in the coming out of crop regions. A study of crop combinations forms an essential part of agricultural geography, and such a study is greatly helpful in regional agricultural planning, especially to optimize crop farming. Crop concentration or diversification is the result of variety in agro-climatic, topographical and socio-economic conditions as well as intensity of irrigation technological level and institutional factors. The objectives considered in the present paper.

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THE WORD Dharma means ‘Eternal Law’. ‘Dharman’ which is the older form of dharma in Vedic literature, is described as the fundamentals of religion, an ideal form of conduct that was accepted as the foundation of right living by religious orders in ancient India. Hindu dharma has put emphasis on all folded development of individual i.e. physical, psychological, intellectual and spiritual. ‘Food is the ultimate’, is the Vedic thought and it has been given a great importance in the overall development of an individual. Detailed regulations and prohibitions were made for food. The present article is an attempt to compile some of these codes of conduct pertaining to food.

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Agriculture is the main activity of people residing in dryland regions of western Rajasthan as there are no other substantial employment activities to manage their livelihood. This part of Rajasthan state has less infrastructure facilities and basic amenities due to large area and low population density in most part. Situation within districts is quite varied as canal irrigation has attracted many people to migrate in those areas.