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Volume -6 Issue - 4
Month [Year] -- April [2015]
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   No of Download : 17    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

B•hatkathlokasagraha is one of the Sanskrit versions of original Brhatkatha written by Gunadhya in Paishachi Prakrit. Brhatkatha is the treasure-tower of stories. The tale starts with the history of Avanti from the death of king Pradyot one of Udayana’s fathers-in- law, the father of Vasavadatta. This leads from history into fiction when one of Pradyota’s successors is abducted by the ‘wizard’ vidyadhara. The emperor of the wizards, Naravahanadatta, intervenes to give judgment in the case and to release the king. Naravahanadatta then relates the story of how he became emperor. The main story being thus introduced, it is narrated in the first person by Naravahanadatta.

   No of Download : 89    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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A nation’s identity is reflected alongside the development of its literature. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, during the period of Colonization and Revolution, American literature was inspired by the broader tradition of English literature. However in the early nineteenth century, the period of first American Renaissance, unique American characteristics found their way in American literature and henceforth American literature took a separate path and formed a new tradition which marked the real beginning of American literature. The present paper analyzes this diversity and uniqueness in the matters of theme and form that became an essential principle for the development of American fiction.

   No of Download : 8    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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It is a psychological fact that no two individuals in the world are alike. All the individuals vary from each other with respect to their physical, mental, social, emotional characteristics. Similarly male and female children also vary from each other with respect to their physical, mental emotional and social characteristics. Though male and female children may vary from each other but none of them is superior or inferior.They may vary from each other with respect to the areas of interest. When we study the history of India, we find that the status of women in the society was not lower than male counterparts but with the passage of time, in general and as a result of external invasions, the role and the status of the women went on deteriorating because of the problem of their security in the society.

   No of Download : 7    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Mobile commerce is exponentially growing as smart phones are considered as essential gadget. Internet enabled smart phones are making a path break. M-commerce as an extension of e-commerce, services can be accessed regardless of time and place and more convenient than e-commerce. M-commerce has growing unprecedented because of the increased use of smart phones and internet. Mobile shopping becomes a critical shopping channel and also facilitates customers’ personnel shopping. Mobile phone’s ubiquitous character enables retailers to offer shopping services to customers on the move. There are many determinants which influence customers’ intention to adoption of mobile shopping services. The study focusing on the literature review studies mainly on trust, social influence and consumer traits as main variables which determine the customers’ intention to use mobile shopping services.

   No of Download : 54    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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This paper provides an overview of Corporate Social responsibility in India. The concept of corporate social responsibility has gained importance in the recent years. Companies ought to realise that government alone will not be able to uplift the downtrodden society; companies must participate in the welfare of society. Many of the leading 1companies of the world had realised the importance of being associated with society as a means of promoting their brands. This paper study’s the theoretical aspects of CSR. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the CSR status in India and focuses on the findings & reviewing of the challenges faced by CSR initiatives in India.CSR refers to as the corporation’s obligation to all stakeholders. It’s a pedicle from the desire to do well and get satisfaction in return as well fulfilling the obligation of business towards the society. Many companies undertake these activities superficially and promoting highlighting the activities in media.

   No of Download : 17    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The main purpose of the study was to find out the differences of cardio-respiratory and strength endurance between football and basketball players. For this purpose cooper 12 minutes run and walk for cardio-respiratory endurance and bend knee sit up for strength endurance were administered to 15 football boys(age range 16 to 19) and 15 basketball players from Army public school,Jorhat,Assam.India. The data was analyzed by using T-test at 0.05 level of significance. The Analyzed data showed that there were no significant differences in cardio-respiratory endurance and strength between these two groups.

   No of Download : 6    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

Higher education improves an individual's quality of life. Higher education is perceived as extremely important and it is becoming increasingly rare to procure a well-paying occupation without first obtaining a college degree. While many high school pass out students go on to college, some eventually make the difficult decision to drop out. There are a variety of factors that influence a student’s likelihood to drop out of college. This present study was carried out with the objectives to find out the reasons of college dropouts and to compare the reasons of dropouts among boys and girls. A total sample of 50 college dropouts was selected from Digboi, Assam. Out of those respondents 25 were boys and 25 were girls. An interview schedule was constructed to collect the data from the respondents and the data were also collected from an informal discussion with them. The major factors of dropping out were found to be the rising costs of college tuition fees, poor economic condition, lack of parental guidance in studies, failure in examination, and family issues. It was also found that there is difference in reasons of dropping out of college among boys and girls.

   No of Download : 33    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

पृथ्वी पर जब से जीवन आरंभ हुआ है तब से हजारों वर्षों बाद मानव का अतिस्तव सामने आया था, तब से लेकर हम एक समाज की मर्यादा में रहकर अपना जीवन-व्यापन करते हंै। समाज से कोई भी बड़ा नहीं है, ना धर्म, ना मनुष्य। सब तरफ समाज की सर्वव्यापक है। मानव ने अपने जीवन जीने के तरीकें बनाये है, और उस असीम प्रभु जिसका कोई आकार नहीं है उसको बनाया है। चाहे उसे हम हिंदू धर्म कहे, चाहे हम मुस्लिम धर्म कहे, चाहे हम उसे सिक्ख धर्म कहे, चाहे उसे बौद्ध धर्म कहे, चाहे जैन धर्म कहे या इसके अलावा जिन्हे मानव मानता है और जिनको मानव ने बनाया है। उस परम प्रभु ने मानव को एक समान ही बनाया है चाहे वह किसी भी समुदाय का क्यों ना हो। सबसे पहले सब समान है। यह मानव ने ही मानव को एक-दूसरे से श्रेष्ठ समझने के लिए बनाये है। संतगुरु रविदास जी महाराज ने भी समाज को अपने समय में यही संदेश दिया था कि हम सब एक ही उस असीम शक्ति के अंश है, जो सर्वव्यापक है। इससे नहीं ंतो बाहर है और नहीं अंदर है। मानव मन शरीर ही सबसे बड़ा प्रभु है, अल्लाह है, रहीम है।

   No of Download : 13    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

The study is related to the awareness about an ambitious scheme of employment to rural people of India which is known as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA). Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), Implemented by the Ministry of Rural Development provides the legal framework for the flagship programme of the Government that directly touches the lives of the poor and promotes inclusive growth. The Act aims at enhancing livelihood security of households in rural areas of the country by providing at least one hundred days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. Thus, it is a programme and differs from other schemes because it gives rural poor the right to demand and gives a job guarantee or unemployment allowance. The Act was notified on September 7, 2005 and came into force on February 2, 2006 and it was implemented in three phases in India. Jhalawar is only the district where the scheme was implemented in Phase-I in Hadouti region of Rajasthan.

   No of Download : 6    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

वृद्धि और विकास दोनो समय के संदर्भ में परिवर्तन को इंगित करते है। अंतर यह है कि वृद्धि मात्रात्मक और मूल्य निरपेक्ष हैै। इसका चिन्ह धनात्माक अथवा ऋणात्मक हो सकता है। इसका अर्थ है कि परिवर्तन धनात्मक (वृद्धि दर्शाते हुए) अथवा ऋणात्मक (ह्रास इंगित करते हुए) हो सकता है। विकास का अर्थ गुणात्मक परिवर्तन है जो मूल्य सापेक्ष होता है। इसका अर्थ है कि विकास तब तक नहीं हो सकता जब तक वर्तमान दशाओ में वृद्धि न हो। विकास उस समय होता है तथापि सकारात्मक वृद्धि से सदैव विकास नही होता। विकास उस समय होता है गुणवत्ता में सकारात्मक परिवर्तन होता है।

   No of Download : 6    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

भारत एक संघात्मक शासन व्यवस्था वाला देश है जिसमें केन्द्र पर संघ तथा परिधियों पर राज्योें की सरकारें है। इन्हें अपने क्षेत्र में संविधान द्वारा प्रदत्त संम्प्रभु शक्ति के प्रयोग करने का अधिकार है। भारत के संघीय एवं संसदीय शासन प्रणाली में लोक नितियों के निर्माण नियोजन एवं क्रियान्वयन में जनता द्वारा चुने गये प्रतिनिधियों के माध्यम से होता है। परन्तु संविधान का 73वां तथा 74वां संशोधन अधिनियम 1992 में अनुच्छेद 243छ तथा 243ब तथा 243 प ध और 243 प ड. के माध्यम से स्थानीय आयोजन की अवधारणा को संवैधानिक एवं संस्थागत स्वरूप प्रदान किया गया है।

   No of Download : 4    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

Credit risk is inherent to banking activity. The financial asset the most concerned with credit risk is loan followed by bonds but in a smaller extent. However, other products such as OTC derivatives, Asset Backed Securities and Structures bonds, inter-bank transactions, commitments and guarantees are also more and more affected by credit risk. Credit risk is the risk that one party bounded by a financial contract is unable or unwilling to fulfil his obligations in due time, causing a financial loss for the other party. When the borrower defaults, the next exposure for the lender is the amount owed by the borrower. However, the final loss incurred equals the net exposure (including protection that the creditor holds such as third party guarantees, collateral…) minus the amount that can be recovered by the collection agencies

   No of Download : 4    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

Globalization resulted in the opening up of the economy and emergence of variousemployment generating sectors like BPO and other IT services that deviate from thenormal working hours of 9am-5pm. In this changed economy the employment of women hasalso increased in various service sectors, thereby reducing their hours for household work likecooking. All these have resulted changing the consumption pattern of the household andpeople are experiencing a transition from homemade food to ready to eat food. Further, withthe growth of the economy a shift is also seen in the food basket of cereals to a more variedand nutritious diet of fruit & vegetables, milk, fish, meat & poultry products. Thus, in thisemerging economy with a large middle class of about 250 million Indian food processingIndustry has a huge potential for growth and boost country’s competitiveness. The present research paper is to give a brief view of state of Food Processing Industry in India.

   No of Download : 10    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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FINANCE FOR ALL (Financial inclusion) without discrimination which was initially seen as a distant and imaginary goal now start taking practical and concrete shape in most of the developing economies of the world today. Developing economies are seeking to promote financial inclusion i.e. delivery of financial services at affordable cost to section of disadvantaged and low income segment of society, in order to promote economic and financial development. Indian economy showed a tremendous growth in the direction of financial inclusion because of continuous initiatives and efforts of Reserve Bank of India, state and central government policies (especially recently launched Pradhan Mantrijan-dhan Yojna of NDA government).

   No of Download : 11    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Kavery Nambisan belongs to Coorg and she was born in Palangala village in South Kodagu, Karnataka in 1947. Her surgical career was spent chiefly in rural parts of India. Her latest work The Story That Must Not Be Told was shortlisted for the Man Asian Literary Prize in 2008. Her The Truth (Almost) About Bharat was published in 1991and reissued by the publisher in 2002. It was pubished under her maiden name Kavery Bhatt, and reissued with the name Kavery Nambisan. Her other works include The Scent of Pepper, Mango- coloured Fish, On Wings of Butterflies, The Hills Of Angheri. Nambisan’s novels reveal a deep occupation with the changing Indian social and political scene. Her careful, conscious craftsmanship, and her skillful use of English language for creative writings. She excels in recording the inner mechanism, the minds of her characters, their personal perplexities and social confrontations.

   No of Download : 5    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Jazz, as a genre of music, has intrinsic values of its own. The study of American history would be imperfect without taking into account the contribution of jazz which it occupies certain shares in formation of American culture and identity. In fact, jazz was exclusively a noble product through which African-American could access to the mainstream culture and made a distinct image of America per se in 21st century global world. However, the evolution of jazz music cannot be seen as a consequence of one moment event but associates with long and persistent struggle which develops its concrete shape over time and became a widely diffused music. This paper attempts to define the connotation ‘Jazz’ as more than musical term, perhaps its historical meanings are extended to other domains mostly in culture, in American history. In other words, jazz musicians were revolutionizing not only music but also the concept of culture. However, the main source of such impacts is still to be rooted in jazz as musical culture that itself changes from the parochial model of Euro-centric concept of music.

   No of Download : 12    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) plays an important role in the overall growth of any host economy. Indian economy witnessed a tremendous phase of FDI inflow in the last two decades. In the modern era of globalisation both the developed and developing economies are encouraging various measures and formulating policies to attract MNCs and TNCs to come up with their investment. Governments are trying to establish investment friendly environment in their countries. These trends of the modern governments are their move to the market orientation strategy.

   No of Download : 5    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Mergers and acquisitions (M&As) are strategic decisions taken for maximization of a company's growth by enhancing its production and marketing operations. They are being used to gain strength, expand the customer base, cut competition or enter into a new market or product segment. When globalization of the Indian economy was started in 1991, it was believed that it would mean foreigners not only doing business in India but also taking over Indian companies. However, integrating the Indian economy with rest of the world has proved to be a two-way experience. Presently, Indian companies are not only doing business abroad but there are many instances of their taking over foreign companies with a very significant value which shows the vision strategy and dominance of Indian corporates in the global market. In post-liberalization era, Indian corporate sector has experienced a boom in M&As led restructuring strategies, mainly due to the presence of subsidiaries of big MNCs here as well as the pressure recorded by such strategies on the domestic firms. Finance, Aluminium, Drugs & Pharmaceutical, Telecommunication, Textiles, Electrical machinery, Tea etc are the major sectors in which it has been occurred

   No of Download : 6    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Six years after the onset of the global financial crisis, international trade remains lacklustre.This lack of dynamism contrasts sharply with its rapid expansion in the two decades preceding the crisis. The world economy has seen a modest improvement in growth in 2014, although it will remain significantly below its pre-crisis highs. A number of new trends in international trade have been observed over recent years. An expansion of world merchandise trade, some notable trends in agricultural and manufactured goods, a surge in trade between RTA partners, growing importance of developing countries, a rise in South-South trade, a wider use of containerized or express cargo, an important role of infra-firm trade, a rapid growth in the global production network, and a wider use of e-commerce are identified among the trends

   No of Download : 3    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Big data is a popular term used to describe the exponential growth and availability of data, both structured and unstructured. And big data may be as important to business – and society – as the Internet has become. Why? More data may lead to more accurate analyses. More accurate analyses may lead to more confident decision making. And better decisions can mean greater operational efficiencies, cost reductions and reduced risk. Big data defined As far back as 2001, industry analyst Doug Laney (currently with Gartner) articulated the now mainstream definition of big data as the three Vs of big data: volume, velocity and variety1. Volume. Many factors contribute to the increase in data volume. Transaction-based data stored through the years. Unstructured data streaming in from social media. Increasing amounts of sensor and machine-to-machine data being collected. In the past, excessive data volume was a storage issue. But with decreasing storage costs, other issues emerge, including how to determine relevance within large data volumes and how to use analytics to create value from relevant data. Velocity. Data is streaming in at unprecedented speed and must be dealt with in a timely manner. RFID tags, sensors and smart metering are driving the need to deal with torrents of data in near-real time. Reacting quickly enough to deal with data velocity is a challenge for most organizations.

   No of Download : 35    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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This paper presents a conceptual model/framework of the individual investor. By taking a descriptive point of view, we focus our attention on how investors make their investment decisions in a real world setting, as opposed to rational/optimal behavior proposed by normative financial theories. This conceptual model/framework incorporates results of the research on investment decisions from fields of behavioral finance and cognitive psychology. It is based on a review of existing studies, which themselves were conducted using various research methods. It particularly draws on the heuristics and biases strand of behavioral finance literature, as well as the dual-process theories of human cognition. For understanding the investor behavior we also need to understand the psychology of an individual.

   No of Download : 2    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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India has formal diplomatic relations with most nations; it is the world's second most populous country, the world's most-populous democracy and one of the fastest growing major economies. With the world's eighth largest military expenditure, third largest armed force, seventh largest economy by nominal rates and third largest economy in terms of purchasing power parity, India is a regional power, a nascent global power and a potential superpower. India has a growing international influence and a prominent voice in global affairs. India is a newly industrialized country, has a history of collaboration with several countries, is a component of the BRICS & a major part of developing world. India was one of the founding members of several international organizations, most notably the United Nations, the Asian Development Bank, G20 industrial nations and the founder of the Non-aligned movement. India has also played an important and influential role in other international organizations like East Asia Summit, World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund (IMF),G8+5and IBSA Dialogue Forum. Regionally, India is a part of SAARC and BIMSTEC. India has taken part in several UN peacekeeping missions and in 2007, it was the second-largest troop contributor to the United Nations. India is currently seeking a permanent seat in the UN Security Council, along with the G4 nations.

   No of Download : 7    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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In the words of Chanakya “self-realization and self-initiative are the two most powerful weapons to wash poverty out from the world”. Keeping in view the widespread rural poverty, the economic conditions of marginalized and disadvantaged social groups need to be ameliorated. In this context economic conditions of rural women become more vulnerable due to unequal distribution of resources. Poverty and deprivation widens gender inequality thereby initiating a policy for empowerment of women by increasing their access to credit so that these marginalized sections of rural society would be able to acquire the capability and assets to become economically independent.

   No of Download : 2    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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‘Make in India’ initiative, Mr Narendra Modi, the Prime Minister of India, aims to give global recognition to the Indian economy and also place India on the world map as a manufacturing hub. India has also set for itself an ambitious target of increasing the contribution of manufacturing output to 25 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP) by 2025, from 16 per cent currently. India's economy is expected to grow at 7.4 per cent in 2014-15 as per a Government forecast. According to a new formula which uses 2011-12 as the new 'base year', the revised statistics showed inflation-adjusted economic growth rate for October-December 2014 at 7.5 per cent, making India the fastest growing major economy in the world.

   No of Download : 11    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The Calcutta Chromosome expresses Amitav Ghosh’s peculiar themes and techniques albeit in a changed garb. It is an excellent work of science fiction that projects into the past. Although Ghosh won the Arthur C. Clarke award for science fiction for this novel, yet it is a merging of various genres like science fiction, history detective chases and even spirituality.

   No of Download : 4    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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those in the Indian subcontinent have been attacked by nomadic tribes throughout its long history. In evaluating the impact of Islam on the sub-continent, one must note that the northwestern sub-continent was a frequent target of tribes raiding from Central Asia. In that sense, the Muslim intrusions and later Muslim invasions were not dissimilar to those of the earlier invasions during the 1st millennium. What does however, make the Muslim intrusions and later Muslim invasions different is that unlike the preceding invaders who assimilated into the prevalent social system, the successful Muslim conquerors retained their Islamic identity and created new legal and administrative systems that challenged and usually in many cases superseded the existing systems of social conduct and ethics, even influencing the non-Muslim rivals and common masses to a large extent, though non-Muslim population was left to their own laws and customs. They also introduced new cultural codes that in some ways were very different from the existing cultural codes.

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Historically, Buddhism began in North India in the 6th or 5th century BC, when Siddhartha attained "enlightenment". Enlightenment - Gautama becomes the Buddha Gautama sat under a pipal tree in Gaya in deep meditation. While meditating under the Bodhi tree light and truth dawned on him and he saw a way out of suffering and sadness.

   No of Download : 5    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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प्रकृति अनादिकाल से मानव की सहचरी रही है वर्तमान में भी है एवं अनन्त काल तक मानव एवं प्रकृति का अन्योन्याभय सम्बन्ध अविराम गति से चलता रहेगा । साहित्य समाज का दर्पण है । काव्य साहित्य का संकुचित रूप है जो मानव की सर्जना है।

   No of Download : 5    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Divorce in Islam involves the pronouncement by a husband of the Arabic phrase talaq (lit “I divorce you”) to his wife. The mere pronouncement of the phrase by a men divorce him from his wife although many countries today have additional procedures to register divorces especially after attempts at reconciliation have been exhausted. Three simultaneous declaration of divorce are considered three separate divorces, after which the couple are considered to be permanently separated and cannot remarry without meeting certain conditions.

   No of Download : 13    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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One of the most important characterization of transition metals is their ability to form complexes which are known as coordination compounds. A coordination compound is the product of a Lewis acid-base reaction in which neutral molecules or anions (called ligands) bond to a central metal atom (or ion) by coordinate covalent bonds. Ligands are Lewis bases. They contain at least one pair of electrons to donate to a metal atom/ion.

   No of Download : 10    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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When, how and why do computers come to be used in classrooms? What are the factors involved in the processes of technology integration in schools? In what teaching and learning processes are computers used in the classroom? How and under what conditions can these practices generate processes of innovation? Information and communication technologies (ICT) became commonplace entities all told aspects of life. Across the past twenty years the utilization of ICT has basically modified the practices and procedures of nearly all sorts of endeavour among business and governance. Education may be a terribly socially familiarized activity and quality education has historically been related to robust lecturers having high degrees of private contact with learners. the utilization of ICT in education lends itself to a lot of student-centred learning settings. however with the planet moving speedily into digital media and knowledge, the role of ICT in education is turning into a lot of and a lot of necessary and this importance can still grow and develop within the twenty first century. during this paper, a literature review relating to the utilization of ICTs in education was provided. Effective use of ICT for Education, at the side of ICT use within the teaching learning process; quality and accessibility of education; learning motivation. Learning setting. Besides, an summary of the ICT and scholastic performance.

   No of Download : 14    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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अनेक समालोचक और हिंदी साहित्य के इतिहासकार 1850 ई. से 1900 ई. तक के काल को भारतेंदु-युग के नाम से अभिहित करते हैं। 1850 ई. में भारतेंदु का जन्म हुआ। साहित्यिक कृतिकार के रूप में उनकी रचनाओं का प्रकाशन 1868 ई. के बाद से आरंभ हुआ। अतः 1850 ई. से भारतेंदु-युग का आरंभ मानना युकितसंगत प्रतीत नहीं होता। जन्म ग्रहण करते ही अपनी युग-निर्माणकारी प्रतिभा से उन्होंने नवयुग का निर्माण कर दिया। 1868 ई. से 1900 ई. तक के काल को भारतेंदु-युग माना जा सकता है।

   No of Download : 19    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The great numbers of Cricket probable are available at various levels in India, and there is requirement for the establishment of fitness norms which will further contribute in the process of talent identification of Cricket players. The development off it ness norms may be helpful to support the fitness trainers in administering the fitness tests. The patterns implemented will be helpful in setting standards for the players, identifying weaknesses and strengths of the individual player and accordingly the feedback from the output of the assessment of ten provides incentive and motivation for a player to improve in a specific area and to reinforce there wards of quality training.

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Abstract

The recent spurt of ‘theory’ and the popularity of postcolonial cultural studies within English departments has led to a certain diversification and innovation regarding interpretation of literary texts. The text is no more considered an autotelic structure which contains all the ‘contexts’ required for its analysis. Text is now considered a site of diverse cultural forces. The production/interpretation of texts does not take place in ideologically neutral zones, but is affected by numerous socio-cultural factors. The poststructural theories have blurred the boundary between the literary/non-literary texts and interdisciplinarity is in vogue. While it has proved largely fruitful for literary studies, the trend is not without its pitfalls. It has resulted in a lot of pseudo-sociology being produced in the name of literary studies. Interdisciplinarity should ideally imply bringing to bear upon the text a wide frame of reference from extra-literary sources, leading to a comprehensive, exhaustive and more useful understanding of the literary discourse; rather than blatant erosion of all boundaries.