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Volume -6 Issue - 1
Month [Year] -- January [2015]
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   No of Download : 9    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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ABSTRACT Since the past decade, relational database management systems have been the choice of many developers and system administrators for a variety of applications. In spite of the lack of flexibility, the powerful nature of many RDBMS allowed complex database set-ups to be created, queried and used. However, the NoSQL database eliminated the use of the standardized SQL a few years ago. Similarly, others picked up and continued to grow this thought, by referring to various other non-relational databases as NoSQL databases. NoSQL databases try to offer certain functionality that more traditional relational database management systems do not, like, holding simple key-value pairs for shorter lengths of time for caching purposes, or keeping unstructured data that could not be easily dealt with using relational databases and the structured query language (SQL). In this article, we discuss various models of NoSQL database management systems and explain their purposes and functionality and implementation criterion for all.

   No of Download : 13    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Abstract The present study evaluates the, impact and sustainability of group-based Microfinance programmed, primarily focusing on rural women households in the backward regions. In India, usually microfinance organization are women oriented and most of their activities are concentrated towards saving and credit activities (apart from other activities focusing on women's empowerment, health and educational attainment ,etc). This paper analyses the concept of women’s empowerment and outlines empowerment strategies through small micro finance organization and playing important role in helping the women who are in distress in family. The economic empowerment approach has relied on improving women's control over economic resources and strengthening women's economic security. Regional Bank has provided one example of organizing women around savings and credit, income generation, and skill training activities. For fulfilled the objective of the study has been to examine the effects of microfinance policy environment on trends and patterns of institutional credit delivery to the development of rural women in India we done survey in many urban region for knowing the opinion about microfinance organization. After that we had done factor analysis & reliability to check the consistency. Another key objective of the study has been to examine the outreach of microfinance programmes and, in particular, to identify the targeting of the programmes helping women

   No of Download : 13    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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ABSTRACT In this article, the major barriers of using the Internet among Muslim population of Mysore have been discussed. Understanding these barriers provide explanations for the roots of the deep ‘digital divide’ among the members of this community. This article is based on an ethnographic study of the Internet conducted through three years fieldwork between 2011 and 2014 in the framework of a PhD research. The fieldwork was conducted on both “online space” as well as “real world”. Two qualitative techniques of interview and observation have been used among more than 500 Muslim who were selected as the samples of the study. In this ethnographic study, several aspects of the ways through which Muslims of Mysore encounter, interpret and assimilate the Internet on the context of their everyday lives have been investigated. As the result, five major groups of barriers of Internet usage have been recognized among them including 1) the financial inability to use the Internet, 2) illiteracy or low literacy, 3) digital illiteracy 4) negative evaluations of the Internet, and 5) lack of enough motivation to use the Internet.

   No of Download : 6    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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ABSTRACT Rising consciousness regarding environmental problems has led to socially responsible consumers, corporate as well as government. People have become aware about issues facing our environment and they demand eco-friendly products and services. This has brought a revolution in the field of marketing. Marketers have moved beyond traditional marketing practices and provide products and services which cause least possible harm to the environment while also meeting the needs and demands of the consumers. This phenomenon is termed as Green marketing. It refers to the planning, development and promotion of the products or services that satisfy the needs of consumers without affecting environment. This paper attempts to understand what does the term ‘green marketing’ entail, explain why it has garnered importance in the modern era and its current status in India. The research is exclusively explorative in nature. It is chiefly based on the secondary sources of information collected from websites, Journals and other information available in public domain.

   No of Download : 6    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Abstract Ever since E-commerce had spread its paws across the globe, email marketing has become an important mode of marketing. Email marketing is a direct way to reach thousands of customers at a very low rate compared to the any other mean. Under email marketing, the message can be optimized as an image, graphic, hyperlink, text or the combination of all these into an electronic mail and send to any number of potential customers. In email marketing you have the complete attention of the potential customer towardsthe advertising content. Organizations are using this to send product information, e-newsletters, white papers, feedback forms, surveys etc. Over the time, every organization started accommodating email marketing into its marketing mix, and this has led to the bombardment of emails to the customers. Mail boxes are flooded with the emails from numerous sellers. Now the situation is that most of the emails end up unnoticed. Majority of the emails get lost as spam or not even opened by the customer.

   No of Download : 67    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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प्रस्तावना:- स्वतंत्रता प्राप्ति के बाद पिछले 63 वर्षो के दौरान हमारे देश ने सामाजिक-आर्थिक दृष्टि से बहु-आयामी प्रगति की है। जनहित के लिये प्रकृति पर विजय पाने हेतु अंतरिक्ष में जाने वाले देशों में भारतवर्ष छटे स्थान पर है। वर्तमान में द्रुतगामी विकास की महत्ता को दृष्टिगत रखते हुए शासनार्थ योजनाओं की क्रियान्वित को कोई व्यक्ति आज नकार नहीं सकता। वास्तव में वैश्वीक और उदार आर्थिक सामाजिक नीतियों का लाभ उठाने के लिये राज्य के कुछ समाज सेवियों ने मानव संसाधन, समाज व पर्यावरण का बेहतर उपयोग हेतु विवेक सम्मत निर्णय लिया है। देश के त्वरित विकास को मद्देनजर रखते हुए पंचवर्षीय योजनाओं का मसविदा करते समय खुद योजना आयोग की देश की सिंचाई योजनाओं को आड़े हाथों लिया था। इसी के तहत नर्मदा सागर बांध का शिलाविन्यास करते हुए बहुउद्देशीय परियोजनाओं सरदार सरोवर बांध की स्थापना की गई।

   No of Download : 10    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The increasing disposable income and the growing proportion of youth in the population have ledto a growing mobile handset Industry in India. Expanding demand has led to increased competition withBoth Indian and International players like Nokia, Samsung, LG, Panasonic, Motorola, Siemens, etc. vyingfor space in the consumers’ purchase decisions. With so many competitors vying for consumers’attention and tapping their purchase potential, the image of individual brands and the valuepotential consumers attach to the available brands come into play. The project is an attempt to measure this value in terms of Brand Equity. The report entails the determination of the various factors that define Brand Equity and presents an overview of the relation between them. It further explores the four mobile handset brands-Nokia, Sony Ericsson, Samsung and LG- on the basis of the different parameters that determine Brand Equity and how these parameters differ across brands. Recommendations have been provided regarding the elements that each brand should focus on to magnify their Brand Equity and combat competition.

   No of Download : 18    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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ABSTRACT The culture of India is the way of life of the people of India. India's languages, religions, dance, music, architecture, food, and customs differ from place to place within the country. Emerging literature consistently revealed that culture plays an important role in the formation of consumer behavior. Religion in India is characterized by a diversity of religious beliefs and practices. India is the birthplace of four of the world's major religions; namely Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. Religion, being inseparable part of a culture, would also stimulate the behavior of consumers in similar manners which are infrequently being investigated in consumer behavior field need to be explored. In a constantly changing and increasingly globalized world, religion still plays a significant role in influencing social and consumer behavior. With the help of existing literature this paper attempts to highlight role of religion in impacting consumer purchase decision.

   No of Download : 7    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Abstract The economic and demographic factors shape the mobility of people between regions in a country or among nations. Migrants not only help in economic development and boost country’s growth but also compensate shortage in labour markets. At the same time, migration leads to the exacerbation of social tensions. Their cultural, linguistic and religious diversities and the lack of integration programmes lead them to live in closed enclaves. It has been observed that, migration also poses a threat to social and cultural destabilization of society and even sometimes to national security also. The proposed paper would study the changing nature of migration and its impact on Russian society.

   No of Download : 127    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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INTRODUCTION Hotels are an important part of the accommodation industry and have become one of the most competitive businesses in the world in recent years (Harrison & Enz, 2005). For example, lodging in the India was a $108 billion industry, with over 536,500 hotels and 4.1 million guestrooms in 2006 (The Hotel & Lodging Association, 2006). Recently, there has been an increased focus on the management and marketing of hotels (Reisinger, 2001). Hotels provide services that are different from tangible goods because hotel services are immediately consumed and require a people-intensive creation process (Harrison & Enz, 2005).

   No of Download : 6    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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In the thirty years period, Mubarak introduced several reforms. The introduction of political, economic reforms according to liberal principles could not stop Egyptian crisis. The two decades of economic liberalisation policies were accompanied by authoritarianism while at the same time these policies opened up opportunities for crony capital. Hosni Mubarak continued to carry out neo-liberal economic reforms in responding the external pressure, particularly international financial institutions. The vast majority of Egyptians was left behind the growing poverty and infrastructure crumbled.

   No of Download : 21    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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भौगोलिक संरचना की दृष्टि से सर्वाधिक नवीन पर्वत श्रृंखला होने के कारण हिमालयी क्षेत्र सैकड़ों वर्षों से प्राकृतिक आपदाओं का दंश झेलता रहा है। इस त्रासदी से केदारघाटी (उत्तराखण्ड) के जनजीवन को पूरी तरह अस्त व्यस्त हो गया। अनियोजित विकास एवं कुप्रबन्धित पर्यटन के कारण केदारनाथ से शुरू हुई इस आपदा ने केदारघाटी में हुए जल प्रलय द्वारा मानवीय क्षति होने से यहाॅ के सामाजिक जीवन के स्वरूप को ही परिवर्तित कर दिया। राज्य के अन्य क्षेत्रों में भी मानसून का प्रभाव रहा है, लेकिन गढ़वाल हिमालय में आई इस आपदा ने केदारघाटी को सर्वाधिक प्रभावित किया। शासकीय ढीलापन और आपदा प्रबन्धन का प्रभाव इस आपदा के उपरान्त स्पष्ट रूप से दृष्टिगोचर हो रहा है। कठिन भौगोलिक परिस्थितियाॅ और आय के साधनों के अभाव, अशिक्षा व मूलभूत साधनों की कमी तथा बार-बार आने वाली प्राकृतिक आपदाओं से लोगों में असुरक्षा की भावना पैदा होने से पलायन बढ़ रहा है। राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर प्रधानमंत्री की अध्यक्षता में राष्ट्रीय आपदा प्रबन्धन प्राधिकरण का गठन हुआ, ताकि पूरे देश में आपदा प्रबन्धन पर ध्यान देकर जरूरी कदम उठाये जा सके।

   No of Download : 12    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Abstract As per twelfth five year plan India needs around USD $ 1 trillion of investment in infrastructure and it is estimated that close to 50 percent will be funded by debt from private sector. However, due to underdeveloped long term debt market this goal seems to be almost impossible to achieve. Government bond market is vibrant with large number of issues and satisfactory level of liquidity. Corporate bond market is in infancy and Municipal bond market is almost non-existent. The determinants have been categorised into two groups: broad factors and specific factors and India’s progress on these factors have been described. The benefits of a healthy bond markets goes long way in de-risking the burdened banking sector, providing the “spare tire” in case of breakdown of a segment of financial system. The factors like poor contract enforcement mechanism, procedural bottlenecks in the issuance process, low investment ceilings placed on financial institutions are some of the specific reasons behind under development of corporate bond markets. Concerted efforts of SEBI, government, RBI and other key stakeholders would be required to turn around the fledgling corporate bond market and municipal bond market.

   No of Download : 7    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Introduction This research paper tried to examine the effect of recession on customer buying behavior in Indian FMCG sector. The global economic recession continues to be long and deep — and consumers across the globe remain insecure and anxious. They are tightening their budgets and actively trading down. The impact of the recession has also been evident in India with slower growth, higher interest rates and accelerating inflation. However, in the midst of all this gloom and doom, one silver lining that has lurked beneath the radar and escaped broader attention has been the strong trading up and consequent rise of the premium segment in India.

   No of Download : 4    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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ABSTRACT Indian retail market is one of the fastest growing retail market in the world with an estimated value of Rs 47 trillion by 2016-2017. Though still dominated by a large number of small retailers, the Indian retail market has undergone substantial expansion in the organized segment with big domestic companies such as Reliance, Spencer, Bharti investing substantially in the organized retail sector. With Govt. approving FDI in multi brand retail the scenario of Indian retail market is going to change substantially. In this paper we are analyzing these changes on various stakeholders in the Indian retail market and the various issues and concerns raised.

   No of Download : 4    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Introduction Indian constitution promised a complete quality to women. But there was no adequate participation by women in Indian political system except the voting power that they got along with the men. By 73rd and 74th Amendment Acts of 1992, Panchayati Raj system was established in India. This act empowered the rural women by giving one third reservation to them. Rural women were the one who were more away from the development work. Now, they know what role should be played by them in the political system. Once political status in improved, it makes them economically empowered and their social status is also improved. This helps to remove the social evils like child marriage, Illiteracy and etc. 73rd and 74th Amendment Act of 1992 brought a tremendous change in the participation of women in political system. This grass root level democracy women to participate in government decision making. Active participation in Panchayat Raj system make rural women to think about their rights. This made them to change their social status.

   No of Download : 4    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Information technology has permeated nearly every aspect of people’s lives. Technology is changing the way people, firms, and institutions present, disseminate, and communicate their messages, creating a ubiquitous learning environment and an accelerating information society. In an information society, achieving a high level of acquisition and management of knowledge will be one of the key competitive advantages.

   No of Download : 3    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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मेवाड़ भू-भाग आदिवासी बहुल भू-भाग है। यहाँ के राणाओं ने जितने भी युद्ध किये, आदिवासियों ने उनका सर्वाधिक साथ दिया। आदिवासियों में स्वाभिमान, देशप्रेम, समर्पण, मैत्रीभाव, ईमानदारी तथा वफादारी जैसे गुण कूट-कूट कर भरे पड़े हैं। मेवाड़ के राजचिह्न में भी एक ओर राजपूत वीर तथा दूसरी ओर आदिवासी वीर दिखाया गया है।

   No of Download : 4    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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शाकटायन-व्याकरण पर अनेक टीकाएँ लिखी गई हैं परन्तु उन टीकाओं में से कुछ टीकाएँ सम्प्रति उपलब्ध हैं तथा कुछ अनुपलब्ध हैं।

   No of Download : 5    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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A systems development life cycle is composed of a number of clearly defined and distinct work phases which are used by systems engineers and systems developers to plan for, design, build, test, and deliver information systems. Like anything that is manufactured on an assembly line, an SDLC aims to produce high quality systems that meet or exceed customer expectations, based on customer requirements, by delivering systems which move through each clearly defined phase, within scheduled time-frames and cost estimates. Computer systems are complex and often (especially with the recent rise of service-oriented architecture) link multiple traditional systems potentially supplied by different software vendors. To manage this level of complexity, a number of SDLC models or methodologies have been created, such as "waterfall"; "spiral"; "Agile software development"; "rapid prototyping"; "incremental"; and "synchronize and stabilize".

   No of Download : 43    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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This paper provides an overview of the aspects related to Globalization. It is a crucial issue and challenge to all the organizations now days. Globalization has had far reaching consequences to both the people living in India and the economy in general. Defining what is meant by globalization is important in the assessment of its advantages and disadvantages to India. This is particularly crucial since the exclusion of those who clearly support the phenomenon in its present form, that is, those who believe that globalization has many advantages and that these advantages will automatically be felt by the poor, also hold various and divergent views concerning this process.This research is an attempt by the authors to understand the attitude of Industries in India towards Globalization.The purpose of this paper was to provide a review of the existing research in the area of negative and positive side of Globalization. A systematic literature review methodology was adopted. The existing literature was reviewed to find out how Globalization has impacted the indigenous industries and overall employment of the country. This paper traces and presents a concrete overview regarding both the sides of Globalization.

   No of Download : 7    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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If ever there was a controversial icon from the statistics world, GDP is it. It measures income, but not equality, it measures growth, but not destruction, and it ignores values like social cohesion and the environment. Yet, governments, businesses and probably most people swear by it. According to François Lequiller, head of national accounts at the OECD, part of the problem is that perhaps we expect too much from this trusty, though misunderstood, indicator. But, the public is so used to GDP that we sometimes forget how hard it is to accurately sum all of the goods and services produced in a country together, from bricks and tableware to banking and software. First of all, to make such aggregating possible, you need to define what production is and what it is not. Our conventions may sometimes look arbitrary, such as when we exclude the output of domestic work that is carried out in the home. We do not consider, for example, that taking care of one’s own children is production, whereas we do when a hired nanny does the same work.

   No of Download : 7    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The term child abuse can be described as the Physical, Emotional, Sexual abuse and Neglect of child. The problem of child abuse in India is not a new phenomenon but the reporting of the abuse is very low. The data shows that the incidences of Rape, Kidnapping & Abduction and Procuration of Minor girl are increasing in a rampant way. There is consistent increase in these phenomenons in India. The main cause behind this problem is the social-cultural system exists in India. In-spite of the various constitutional provisions, the children are not safe and every two out of three are facing abuse in one or more forms. The children are mostly abused by parents and the persons who are supposed to take care of them. The boys and girls both are abused in almost same proportions. The Government of India has passed POCSO Act-2012 to protect the minor children from sexual assault and abuse. Stringent provisions have been made in this act to protect the minor child. Similarly, the Juvenile Justice Act is also amended to protect the rights of child and to save them from victimization. Similarly, the Government of India has started certain programmes e.g. Integrated Child Protection Programme, Integrated Child Development Scheme, Dhanalakshmi, Ujjawal, Sharva Shiksha Abhiyan etc. for the protection and overall development of children.

   No of Download : 5    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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नीति-विज्ञान के अन्तर्गत, ‘‘विदेष नीति निर्माण-प्रक्रिया’’(Foreign Policy Making Process) के सन्दर्भ में पूर्णतः ‘‘परा-अनुषासनीय दृश्टिकोण’’ (Interdisciplinary Perspective) अपनाया जाता रहा है, क्योंकि ‘‘आतंरिक नीति और विदेष-नीति’’ (Domestic and Foreign Policy)पूर्णतः प्रथक करना असंभव है। इसका सर्वप्रमुख कारण यह है कि ‘‘राश्ट्रहीत’’ (National Interest) की प्राप्ति इनका इंतिम लक्ष्य होता है जिनका कार्यक्षेत्र मुख्यतः आंतरिक व बाहरी दो भागो में विभाजित किया जाता है। ‘‘रिचर्ड स्माॅक और अलैक्ज़ेंडर जार्ज’’ (Richard Smoke and Alexander George)ने नीति विज्ञान (Policy science) के अन्तर्गत, अंर्तराश्ट्रीय संबंधों के संदर्भ (In the Context of International Relations) नोरमैटिव सिद्धान्त’’ (Normative Theory) तथा ‘‘आनुभाविक सिद्धान्त’’(Empirical Theory) का विष्लेशण किया है।

   No of Download : 3    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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मनुष्य स्वभावतः अल्पज्ञ है। अतः उसकी रचनाओं में दोष का रह जाना स्वाभाविक ही है। लेकिन इस अल्पज्ञता का यह अर्थ कदापि नहीं हैं कि व्यक्ति को दोषों के परिहार में प्रयत्न नहीं करना चाहिए। एक अबोध बालक के मुख से निकलती हुई तुतलाती वाणी भले ही चित्त को हरती हो, परन्तु यही जब किसी युवा के मुख से निकलती है तो उसे उपहास का पात्र बना देती है। बच्चा जब घुटनों के बल अथवा सरक-सरक कर चलता है तो माता का मन खिल उठता है परन्तु अगर किसी माता के युवा पुत्र की यह स्थिति हो तो वह कारुण्य के भाव को उत्पन्न कर माँ के हृदय को व्याकुल बना देती है। सारांशतः यही कहा जा सकता है कि दोष चाहे शारीरिक हो अथवा मानसिक उसका परिहार अवश्य करना चाहिए। दोष परिहार की इसी विधि का नाम ‘शिक्षण’ है।

   No of Download : 39    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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किसी देश का आर्थिक विकास उसकी कार्यकुशल, शिक्षित एवं प्रशिक्षित श्रमशक्ति पर निर्भर करता हैं। आर्थिक विकास की दृष्टि से भौतिक संसाधन की अपेक्षा मानवीय पूँजी को अधिक महत्वपूर्ण समझा जाता है क्योंकि मानवीय साधनों की कुशलता एवं दक्षता पर ही आर्थिक विकास का ढाँचा खड़ा किया जा सकता है। यदि किसी देश के पास पर्याप्त एवं श्रेष्ठतम मानव पूँजी उपलब्ध है तो उस देश की भौतिक संसाधन और भी उत्पादक बन जाती है प्रसिद्ध अर्थशास्त्री शुल्ज का कहना है कि “हमारी आर्थिक प्रणाली का सबसे महत्वपूर्ण लक्षण मानवीय पूँजी का विकास है। इसे किए बिना हमें व्यापक दरिद्रता एवं कठोर शारीरिक श्रम से मुक्ति नहीं मिल सकती है।” मानवीय पूँजी के विकास के लिए शिक्षा प्रशिक्षण स्वस्थ्य जीवन स्तर में वृद्धि करना जरूरी है। ऐसा कोई भी विनियोग जो जनशक्ति की शिक्षा, स्वास्थ्य प्रशिक्षण, कार्य कुशलता तथा जीवन स्तर में वृद्धि करता है।

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Jaisalmer was founded by Bhati Rajputs in the 12th century. It is the second oldest fort after Chittor in Rajasthan where the will-to-do persons together with royal clan provided great contribution to the cultural upliftment. As a result of it, numerous works were composed and illustrated here. Several illustrated manuscripts have been preserved in Jaisalmer Granth Bhandar. The wooden covers of these works have also been painted bearing the portraits of eminent Jain Acharyas Jinballabh Suri and Jindutta Suri. These wooden covers provide a great helping hand in the study of the Indian painting art and its phased development.

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प्राचीनकाल के सभ्य संसार में भारत की स्थिति अत्यधिक महत्त्वपूर्ण थी। हिन्द महासागर के तट पर स्थित होने के कारण भारत की केन्द्रीय स्थिति थी। वह तत्कालीन सभ्य एवं सुसंस्कृत देशों के समुद्री भागों के मध्य में स्थित होने से उन देशों में फैली हुई सभ्यताओं के सम्पर्क में आता रहता था। सुमात्रा, जावा, बाली, बोर्नियो, स्याम, हिन्दचीन, बर्मा (वर्तमान म्यांमार) और मलाया आदि देश इसी प्रकार से भारतीय संस्कृति के सम्पर्क में आकर सभ्य बने। व्यापार की वृत्ति संस्कृति और सभ्यता का प्रसार विजय और व्यापार के साथ होता है। भारतीय संस्कृति के प्रसार में भारतवासियों की व्यापार यात्राओं ने अनुपम सहयोग प्रदान किया। उस काल के भारतीयों को ज्ञान था कि पूर्वी द्वीप-समूह मसालों और स्वर्ण के खानों से भरपूर हैं, अत: भारतीय नाविक और व्यापारी उन देशों की अत्यधिक यात्रा करते थे, जिनके कारण वहाँ की जातियाँ उनके सम्पर्क में आने लगीं और भारतीय संस्कृति से प्रभावित होने लगीं।

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This paper has one parts viz. Budgetary Status of the rural Haryana and brings out the salient features of the family budgets of the farm households and agriculture labour households in Sonepat district. The analysis highlights the economic status of the sample households in terms of their income- expenditure gap, the source-wise composition of income and item-wise pattern of expenditure at the district level, and brings out inter- tehsil and inter-category differences/disparities in terms of these.

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In this paper, the focus will remain on the journey of Manju Kapur’s heroines from rebellion to oblivion. The heroines, when unable to withstand suffocation, exploitation & injustice only because of gender, rebel against patriarchal set up & invite the wrath of society. Ironically, their own indecisiveness, emotional outburst, unrealistic appraisal of circumstances, instinct to rebel lead them to confusion & oblilvion. They fail to become role model as they are counted as women gone astray. They are the victim of their own instinct. The priority, assigned to emotional upheaval over practical aspects of life aggravates their problem. Manju Kapur practices objectivity & shows no favour or criticism towards characters. Characters appear in their natural colour with variety of shade as life itself is varied, unpredictable & uncertain.

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यह विदित है कि उन्नीसवीं शताब्दी में एक स्वतंत्र अनुशासन के तौर पर साहित्य के समाजशास्त्रीय अध्ययन की शुरुआत हुई और उन्नीसवीं सदी के मध्य तक आते-आते इपोलित अडोल्फ तेन (1828-93) के माध्यम से उसको वैज्ञानिकता प्राप्त हुई। तेन से बहुत पहले फ्रांस में साहित्य के समाजशास्त्रीय अध्ययन का बीज-वपन मादाम स्तेल (1766-1817) ने अपनी पुस्तक 'सामाजिक संस्थाओं से साहित्य के संबंध पर विचार' (1800) के द्वारा कर दिया था, जिसका इस्तेमाल तेन ने अपने तर्इं किया। उन्होंने साहित्य के समाजशास्त्रीय अध्ययन के लिए प्रजाति, परिवेश एवं क्षण या युग के बीच क्रिया-प्रतिक्रिया से निष्पन्न उस विशिष्ट मानसिक संरचना के विश्लेषण पर बल दिया था, जिससे किसी युग-विशेष का एक केन्द्रीय बौद्धिक ढाँचा निर्मित होता है और तदयुगीन श्रेष्ठ कलाकृतियों के द्वारा अभिव्यक्ति प्राप्त करता है। दूसरे शब्दों में तेन ने प्रजाति, परिवेश एवं युग के अपने त्रिक सिद्धांत के द्वारा विधेयवादी पद्धति से साहित्य के सामाजिक मूलाधार की खोज करने का प्रयास किया। रवीन्द्रनाथ ने लिखा है कि साहित्य मंदिर की भित्ति पृथ्वी के गहन अन्तर्देश में गड़ी होती है और उसका शिखर मेघों को भेदकर आकाश में उठता है। तात्पर्य यह कि साहित्यकार सामाजिक तथ्यों के आधार पर ही अपनी कल्पना के झरोखे एवं मेहराब निर्मित करता है।

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The Indus valley civilization saw its genesis in the holy land now known as India around 2500 BC. The people inhabiting the Indus River valley were thought to be Dravidians, whose descendants later migrated to the south of India. The deterioration of this civilization that developed a culture based on commerce and sustained by agricultural trade can be attributed to ecological changes. The second millennium BC was witness to the migration of the bucolic Aryan tribes from the North West frontier into the sub continent. These tribes gradually merged with their antecedent cultures to give birth to a new milieu.

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The Rebellion of 1857 (also known as the Indian Mutiny) was a watershed event in the history of British India. It was by far the largest, most widespread, and dangerous threat to British rule in India in the nineteenth century. One of its most obvious repercussions was the elimination of the ruling East India Company and the transfer of control of India to the British Crown. As a military crisis of truly massive proportions, the Rebellion also inspired the structural transformation of both the British and Indian armies. In Britain, the crisis resulted in the amalgamation of the East India Company’s European forces into the line, and the commitment of a permanent, 80,000-man garrison on the subcontinent. In India, the mutiny or disbandment of sixty-nine out of the seventy-four regiments of the Bengal army necessitated its entire reconstruction with men as different in origin as possible from those who had so recently rebelled.

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Agriculture of India got a commercial orientation during the British rule. Though markets and trade in agricultural goods existed in quite organized forms and on a large scale in the pre-British period but the market expansion in the British period marked a qualitative and quantitative break. According to Tirthankar Roy, there were three main qualitative changes. ‘First, before the British rule, product markets were constrained and subject to imperfections, given multiplicity of weights and measures, backward and risky transportation systems, and extensive use of barter. British rule and the railways weakened these constraints. By doing so, it enabled closer integration of global, regional and local markets. Second, from the time of industrial revolution, a new international specialization began to emerge as a result of trade. India specialized, in agricultural exports. Third, in turn, changes in the product market induced changes in land, labour, and credit markets’.

   No of Download : 43    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

चैथे आम चुनाव के पूर्व केन्द्र और राज्य सरकारों के सम्बन्ध सामान्य और सन्तोषजतक थे क्योंकि लगभग सभी राज्यों में एक दल अर्थात् कांग्रेस का एकाधिकार था। पं0 नेहरू का महान् व्यक्तित्व लम्बे अर्से तक देश के नेतृत्व पर छाया रहा था और केन्द्र एवं राज्यों का सम्बन्ध एक दल के अन्दर केन्द्रीय और स्थानीय नेताओं के सम्बन्ध की भी बात थी। यदि केन्द्र और राज्यों मंे मतभेद या मनमुटाव होते थे तो उन्हें दलीय आधार पर दूर कर लिया जाता था। एक दलीय प्रभुत्व वाली राजनीतिक व्यवस्था के कारण ही ऐसा हुआ है। 1989-2004 के निर्वाचनों से यह इंगित होता है कि भारत मंे संघ व्यवस्था का ‘सौदेबाजी वाला प्रतिमान’ ही कार्यरत हैं विश्वनाथ प्रतापसिंह ;1989द्ध, चन्द्रशेखर ;1990द्ध, पी0वी0 नरसिंह राव ;1991द्ध, श्री एच0डी0 देवगोड़ा ;1996द्ध, श्री इन्द्र कुमार गुजराल ;1997द्ध, अटल बिहारी वाजपेयी ;1998 एवं 1999द्ध तथा डाॅ0 मनमोहन सिंह ;2004द्ध के नेतृत्व में बनने वाली सभी केन्द्रीय सरकारें अल्पमतीय सरकारें थी जिन्हें सत्ता में बने रहने के लिए उन दलों का सहारा लेना पड़ा जो राज्यों मंे शक्ति के पुंज थे।

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The nature of the Indian political culture has been shaped by its historical, social, economic, religious and many other traditions of the society. Indian political culture is in the transitional stage i.e. formative stage and still continues to evolve the new features. Indian politics have been changed through if it is compared from the pre-independence to post-independence. Educated society in pre-independence era, was too lack of knowledge about the Indian political culture, hence it is found at that time, Indian political culture was so simple and easy to manage the post of the leadership, it remained till 25 years past of the independence.

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Heterocyclic compounds may be classified into aliphatic and aromatic. A cyclic organic compound containing carbon atoms in ring formation and is referred to as a carbocyclic compound. The aliphatic heterocyclics are the cyclic analogues of the amines, ethers, thio ethers, amides, etc. Heterocyclic compounds have many properties such as it can be used as antimalarial, anthelmintic, diuretic etc.

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Educational Data Mining (EDM) is an emerging discipline, concerned with developing methods for exploring the unique types of data that come from educational settings, and using those methods to understand the students better. In this paper, we studied the developments in the field of Educational Data Mining.

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India has its own needs for an infrastructural growth but it is perceptible that here only public sector cannot finance an ample amount of capital required. The respective country has various issues to make PPP deals successful. There are generous uncertainties connecting to the completion of a project procurement progression so that there are delays and increased costs to all parties.

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Since India’s independence, many policies were structured, but neither the inclusive education system is established nor did the goal of “Education for All” accomplish yet. In-depth analysis of the education policies for people with disability is important to derive the information about course of special education and inclusion in India. In this paper, a historical review of the policies, acts and deeds which have caused an impingement on the life of people with disability in India, has been presented. It has been a significant focus of several international policies and India is signatory to many of these international declarations. So, it is imperative to understand the ways in which the international policies have influenced the policies and practices across India. The contemporary scenarios pose atypical challenges for effectively and efficiently addressing the diverse needs of individuals with disability which in itself is too heterogeneous. This raises the requirement for a critical evaluation of the emerging issues and challenges with specific reference to children with special needs on one, two or multiple grounds. These will include a range of special needs emerging due to an interface of physical, cognitive, social, cultural and economic circumstances of the individuals.