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Volume -6 Issue - 2
Month [Year] -- February [2015]
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ABSTRACT The Kurds, an ethnic minority numbering 20-25 million people are primarily concerted in Turkey, Iran and Iraq with residual communities found in Syria and Armenian republic. The bulk of Kurds live in contiguous areas in the east and south east of Turkey, north and northeast of Iraq and North West of Iran and northeast Syria. Before the emergence of modern nation states in West Asia, the Kurds were the frontiersman, living on the disputed borders between rival Ottoman and Persian empires.After the World War I, when new states were carved out of a disintegrating Ottoman empire, the Kurds like the stateless Jews were also regarded as natural candidate for nationhood. The Treaty of Serves, which had envisioned interim autonomy for the predominantly Kurdish areas, became irrelevant, as the reconstructed Turkish army overran Kurdish territories in 1922. While a large chunk of Kurdish population was left within the borders of the new Turkish republic founded by Ataturk, Britain and France indirectly awarded themselves Kurdish areas through their client states, Iraq and Syria. The non-implement the provisions of the Treaty set off sporadic Kurdish resistance to the central control in all three states – Turkey, Iraq and Iran – where Kurds are primarily concentrated.

   No of Download : 7    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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बालक का जब भी पृथ्वी पर पदार्पण होता है, तभी से वह सृष्टि की एक सम्पूर्ण इकाई होता है। प्रकृति से उसे जो नैसर्गिक रूप में प्राप्त होता है। उसे बाहर से कुछ जमा करके अथवा घटा करके उसकी प्रकृत क्षमताओं को कम या अधिक नहीं किया जा सकता, किन्तु प्रायः प्रत्येक बालक को प्रकृति ने इतना कुछ दिया होता है कि मनुष्य उसका सही प्रयोग करके, उचित वातावरण उपलब्ध कराकर उस सम्पूर्ण इकाई को स्वयं के समाज व राष्ट्र के लिए उपयोगी इकाई में बदल सकता है। इस विषय के अध्ययन के पश्चात् पत्र-प्रस्तुत कत्र्री का यह मानना है कि बालक न तो शिक्षा संस्थानों व शिक्षकों का उपकरण है और न ही उनके रहमोकरम पर निर्भर निरीह जीव है। इस प्रकार का मत रखने वाले समुदाय को नकारने व उनके अभिमत से असहमत होने के साधन भी कुदरत ने उसे उपलब्ध कराए हैं। जो नकारात्मक दृष्टिकोण पनपने के कारण बहुधा राष्ट्र व समाज के लिए घातक सिद्ध होते हैं।

   No of Download : 10    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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ABSTRACTS: The globalisation prompt more and more countries to open their doors to foreign investments and as the business expand across borders the need arises to recognize the benefits of having commonly accepted and understood financial reporting standards. The sound financial reporting standards underline the trust that investors place in financial reporting information: and thus play an important role in contributing to the economic development of a country. The mission of International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) is to develop a single set of financial reporting standards that are accepted worldwide. The Accounting Standards Board (ASB) of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) is committed to convergence of its standards with those of IASB. However, deviations from International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) have been noted due to the some unavoidable reasons like legal and regulatory requirements, economic environment, level of preparedness and conceptual differences etc. Thus it can argued that even there has been lot of deliberation on convergence of Indian accounting standards with IFRS, it is difficult to adopt IFRS considering the indigenous problems.

   No of Download : 6    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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INTRODUCTION As pointed by State Budgetary Resources and Agricultural Development in Rajasthan that Agriculture plays an important role in Rajasthan economy. It contributes about 30% of GDP. According to 2011 census, 77 percent of the Rajasthan’s total population of 6.86 crores lives in the villages and is mainly dependent on agriculture activities for their livelihood. Enhancing growth of the agriculture sector is vital for ensuring the food security , poverty eradication , price stability , overall growth and sustainable growth of overall economy. Owing to several adverse conditions among which occurrence of famines , poverty and lack of education and general awareness are more significant , this high proportion of population is not capable of providing significant contribution towards the prosperity and development of the state.

   No of Download : 7    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Diseases such as Cancer, diabetes, osteoporosis, cardiovascular problems and other chronic diseases are becoming more prevalent in today’s world. The major contributing factor behind the increase in frequency of such diseases is the change in the food habits and lifestyle of the people. With the advancement in the society, people now know these factors and are becoming concerned about their daily diet. The progress in the research area has led the scientists to understand the relation between the interactions of the bioactive components of the food with the metabolic process leading to the characterization of biological basis of the disease. Thus, the new area of functional foods is gaining importance. The concept of functional foods was first developed in 1980’s in Japan and gained foods for Specified Health Use (FOSHU) status in September, 2001 (American Council on Science and Health,2002).

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India is a country which steadily developed through the ages and maintained a long cultural continuity. Every period of her history has left something to the present day. The purpose for the study of this course namely ‘History of India upto 8th century’ is to know how, when and where people developed the earliest cultures in India, how they began undertaking agriculture and stock raising which made life secure and settled. As an eminent historian has put it, “the study of ancient history shows how the ancient Indians discovered and utilized natural resources and how they created the means for their livelihood; how they made arrangements for food, shelter and transport; how they took to farming, spinning, weaving, metal working and the like; and also how they cleared forests, founded villages, cities and eventually large kingdoms”.

   No of Download : 6    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Abstract The purpose of the study was to investigate the mental toughness of international Badminton players from different countries. The study was restricted to 42 international badminton players from different countries. All were international level players from various countries i.e. India, Denmark, Russia, Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand. The data collected of mental toughness of international badminton players from Yonex - Sunrise India Open 1-6 April 2014 and mental toughness was assessed with help of Alan Goldberg’s questionnaire of mental toughness . In order to computed data one- way analysis was employed, the level of significance was chosen at 0.05. The result from the data revealed that there was not significant difference in mental toughness of international players from different countries. This might be due to their lack of interest and seriousness to play in competition.

   No of Download : 5    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The concept of the ‘New Woman’ was a feminist ideal that came into existence after the 1900s in America. However, the idea of the ‘new woman’ was not confined to the United States.1 It was Henry James who popularized the term “New Woman” to account for the increase in the number of independent, educated and career-oriented women in Europe.2 According to historian Ruth Bordin, the term New Woman was intended by him to characterize American expatriates living in Europe – women of affluence who exhibited an independent spirit and were accustomed to acting on their own.3 The term New Woman especially referred to those women who lived life on their own terms and exerted autonomy over their individual and socio-economic life.

   No of Download : 53    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Abstract The concept of Self Help Group has its roots in rural areas and it has been mooted along the rural and semi urban women to improve their living conditions.Women empowerment is a process in which women challenge the existing norms and culture, to effectively promote their well-being. The participation of women in Self Help Groups (SHGs) made a significant impact on their empowerment both in social and economical aspects.This study addresses women empowerment through self-help groups in PRATAPGARH district of UTTERPRADESH. The information required for the study has been collected from both the primary and secondary sources A multistage random sampling method has been followed. Average and percentage analysis was carried out to draw meaningful interpretation of the results. This paper examines the women empowerment through SHGs and also explains the current position of women empowerment in India.

   No of Download : 11    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Abstract The present study highlights the conflict resolution methods used by employees of Preeti International Ltd. (name disguised). The famous Thomas Kilmann Instrument was used for analysis of responses. Five modes of resolution of conflict have been defined be Kenneth W. Thomas and Ralph H. Kilmann which are competing, accommodating, avoiding, collaborating and compromising. This study revolves around all these five modes. It was found that the employees at Preeti International Ltd. resorted to competing mode in most of the situations, followed by accommodating, avoiding and collaborating. The compromising mode was less used. There is no right or wrong mode of conflict resolution. Every situation demands a different, best suiting mode.

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In the past 57 years during which the Companies Act, 1956 has been in existence, the corporate and business environment has evolved significantly and hence there was a need to revamp the legislation governing companies. The passage of the Companies Act 2013 is indeed a welcome development and a significant step towards making our corporate legislation contemporary and in line with current business practices. It has been over 10 years since the last major overhaul of the existing Act, and in many ways this has been overdue. The Act is to a large extent aimed at improving governance in the corporate sector, whether aimed at owners, managers or other stakeholders, including auditors. The existing Companies Act, 1956 was enacted by the Indian Legislature over half-a-century ago. In the ensuing years, much has changed in the nature of businesses and the manner in which they are conducted both domestically and internationally. Introduction of a Corporate Social Responsibility clause has made India the first country to mandate CSR through a statutory provision. While CSR is not mandatory for Companies, the rules are in line with the Comply or Explain principle with penalties applicable only if an explanation is not offered.This paper is focused on Companies Act, 2013 & its provision on mandatory spending and disclosure of Corporate Social Reasonability activities.

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Gender diversity on boards has become a global challenge due to the underrepresentation of women on corporate boardrooms across the globe. Measures have been taken by various nations in the form of imposing Quotas or adopting voluntary measures like targets. Norway was the first country to introduce Quota in 2003 to increase the proportion of women on corporate boards. In India Companies Act 2013 which came into effect on April 1, 2014, requires that every listed company or public limited company with a paid up capital of 100 crore or more or a turnover of 300 crore or more to appoint at least one women director by 1 April 2015. The paper covers position women on the corporate boards in India, the Quota and targets and the effect of gender diverse boards on corporate performance.

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INTRODUCTION On 25 January 2011, widespread protest began against Mubarak regime. The objective of the protests was the removal of Mubarak from the power. These protests took the form of an intensive campaign of civil resistance supported by a very large number of people. After three days, even Muslim Brotherhood joint the protests by 29 January 2011 it was becoming clear that Mubarak’s regime had lost control when a curfew order was ignored and army took a semi-neutral instance on enforcing the curfew order. On 11 February Hosni Mubarak resigned and flat Cairo Vice-President Amr-Soulemein announced that Mubarak had step down and then the Egyptian Military would assume control of the nation-affairs in the short term. Juvelline celebration broke out in Tahir Square. On 13 February 2011, the high- level military command of Egypt had been dissolved. The parliamentary election has to be held in September. The Muslim Brotherhood was the clear winner in the parliamentary election that ended in January 2012 holding roughly half of the seats. In March, the brotherhood reneged on a promised not to see presidency. Its initial candidate was rejected by the courts. On the basis of Mubarak era conviction and the parties’ back-up candidate Mohamed Morsi became the President.

   No of Download : 7    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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आज के समय में सिनेमा सिर्फ व्यापार न होकर साहित्य का अंग बन गया है। सिनेमा के बारे में कहा जाता है कि, यह दृष्टि की कला है, एक किताब है, जिसमें मनुष्य के जीवन को पढ़ने के साथ-साथ देखा भी जा सकता है। सिनेमा का संबंध समाज और साहित्य से सनातन रहा है। सिनेमा वह रचनात्मक विधा है जिसके सृजन में जीवन के लगभग हर कार्य-व्यापार से संबंधित व्यक्ति जुड़ा होता है। भिन्न-भिन्न तरह के लोग। छोटे से बड़े तक, खरे से खोटे तक। यह लेखक के व्यक्तिगत लेखन से बिल्कुल अलग तरह की निर्मिति है। अतः इस बात को स्वीकार करने में किसी प्रकार संकोच नहीं होना चाहिए कि सिनेमा समाज के पढ़े-लिखे लोगों के लिए मनोरंजन के साथ-साथ ज्ञानवर्धन का माध्यम तो है ही यह सबसे पहले उस आखिरी आदमी का माध्यम है जो पढ़ने-लिखने की हदों से कोसों दूर है।

   No of Download : 18    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Transparent electronics is an emerging science and technology field focused on producing ‘invisible’ electronic circuitry and opto-electronic devices. Applications include consumer electronics, new energy sources, and transportation; for example, automobile windshields could transmit visual information to the driver. Glass in almost any setting could also double as an electronic device, possibly improving security systems or offering transparent displays. In a similar vein, windows could be used to produce electrical power.

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Cost cutting, concern for environment and increasing rules and regulation related to environments have resulted in making industries think about better and cost effective ways of doing the marketing. The answer to the above mentioned problems is GREEN MARKETIG. Green Marketing Also known as environmental or ecological marketing, green marketing is the promotion of various types of goods and services that are considered to be environmentally safe. These products are normally designed using natural or recycled materials, and are said to have little or no negative impact on the ecology of the planet. Many goods that meet this criteria are biodegradable, meaning they actually help replenish the planet rather than create an added burden to nature.

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Education, in its broadest sense, may be defined as a process designed to inculcate the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to enable individuals to cope effectively with their environment. Its primary purpose is to foster and promote the fullest individual self-realization for all people. Achieving this goal requires understanding of commitment to the proposition that education is a primary instrument for social and economic advancement of human welfare (Verma, 1990).

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There is a distinctive buzz about Prime Minister Modi’s new campaign for “Make in India”. The thrust is to increase share of manufacturing from the current level of 15 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to 25 per cent and create additional employment opportunity of ten million per year. This has led a few cynics to observe that, “There is a lot of sizzle but where is the steak?” Columnists such as Swaminathan Iyer are of the view that “Make in India” is only an outcome and not a policy while Governor of RBI Raghuram Rajan is of the view that the government is putting too much of thrust on export-led growth and should give primacy to “Make for India”. Discerning writers such as Debasis Basu however, feel that what is germane to the debate is the “cost of doing business” in India. "Unfortunately we are an importing country as far as medical devices go, with our domestic industry accounting for 2% of the global industry which stands at $250 billion. This is what we are aiming to change over the next five years under the leadership of Prime Minister Narendra bhai Modi as we align with his vision to 'Make in India,'" said union minister Ananth Kumar, according to Indian news outlet The Economic Times.

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In recent years supplier selection and order allocation as an important part of supply chain management are facing unprecedented challenges and difficulties. High customization and fast changing market demands pressure the modern supply chain management. The problem is even more serious in Small to Medium Enterprises manufacturing (SMEs) networks. The problem of how to form and coordinate manufacturing networks effectively continues to form the basis of much research. A hybrid Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy process (FAHP) and Genetic Algorithms (GA) approach is presented in this thesis to address the problem. This research is based on an industrial case study. Data and information of suppliers are collected from a company acting as a system integrator in SMEs manufacturing network. The weights of supplier in terms of both qualitative and quantitative criteria are identified. And then, as a result of GA optimization, optimum combinations of suppliers and their production tasks are determined corresponding to the requirement of orders and their own capabilities. The results show that the proposed method is capable of optimizing the configuration of manufacturing networks and provides visualized information for decision makers.

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A smartphone may be small enough to fit in the palm of your hand, but the effect it's having on ecommerce is anything but tiny. Just in sheer volume, mobile devices—and the consumers who use them—are fundamentally changing how businesses approach shopping. "For a lot of companies, mobile traffic is starting to take the lion's share of overall site traffic," says David Fay, content marketing strategist at Mobify, a company that helps make websites mobile-friendly. "Combined traffic from smartphones and tablets regularly surpasses 50 percent of all traffic."

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Cross culture teams and Interaction Challenges

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नारी वह होती है जिसके बिना सम्पूर्ण विश्व सारशून्य है। वैदिक साहित्य में यह बताया गया है कि बेटी भी बेटे के समान ही माता-पिता के अंगो से उत्पन्न हुई है। पिता को पुत्र तथा पुत्री में कोई भेदभाव नही रखना चाहिए और दोनों का समान स्थान होना चाहिए। नारी कोमलता की सूचक होती है। पिता के घर विवाह से पहले रहती है फिर विवाह के बाद अपने ससुराल में स्वामिनी बनती है। स्त्री या पुरुष दोनों प्रकार की सन्तानों में कोई भेदभाव न रखकर दोनों को ही सौभाग्यपूर्ण समझना और यदि पिता का पुत्र-प्राप्ति का सौभाग्य न मिले तो फिर पुत्री को ही वह सारे अधिकार दे देने चाहिए जो पुत्र के लिए है अर्थात्‌ पुत्र् के लिए है अर्थात्‌ पुत्री पुत्र से कम नहीं है ऐसा वैदिक साहित्य में बताया है।

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Accounting system as defined by business dictionary.com states as An organized set of manual and computerized accounting methods, procedures, and controls established to gather, record, classify, analyze, summarize, interpret, and present accurate and timely financial data for management decisions. Every organization must operate accounting system due to the fact that it is generally recommended for companies to report on its financial position to the stakeholders for better decision-making and other policy implementations. The decision to choose whether a company would operate manual or computerized accounting system depends on the company itself.

   No of Download : 49    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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किसी देश का आर्थिक विकास उसकी भौतिक पूँजी एवं मानवीय पूँजी पर निर्भर करता हैं। आर्थिक विकास की दृष्टि से भौतिक पूँजी की अपेक्षा मानवीय पूँजी अधिक महत्वपूर्ण होती है क्योंकि मानवीय साधनों की कुशलता एवं दक्षता पर ही आर्थिक विकास का ढ़ाँचा टिका होता है। यदि किसी देश के पास पर्याप्त व कुशल मानव पूँजी उपलब्ध है, तो उस देश की भौतिक पूँजी और अधिक उत्पादक बन जाती हैं। मानवीय पूँजी के विकास के लिए शिक्षा, प्रशिक्षण, स्वस्थ्य और जीवन स्तर में वृद्धि करना जरूरी है। ऐसा कोई भी विनियोग जो श्रमशक्ति में वृद्धि करता है। उसे मानव पूँजी के विकास में किया गया सक्रिय विनियोग समझा जाता है। आर्थिक पिछड़ापन दूर करने और प्रगति, क्षमता एंव प्रोत्साहन उत्पन्न करने के लिए यह आवश्यक है कि लोगों के ज्ञान व कुशलता में वृद्धि की जाए वास्तव में मानव साधन के गुण में सुधार किए बिना अल्पविकसित देशों में प्रगति सम्भव नहीं।

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Lithuania’s Identity was linked with the Soviet Union when it exists in the Political map before 1991. In 1991, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Lithuania became an independent country. After independence, Lithuania’s politics has been described as a search for identity in the literature of international relations. To understand the Lithuania’s foreign policy course linked to thrust for a new identity in the world politics, there is a need of a delineation of national identity that is intrinsically connected with different conceptions about sovereignty and statehood. The nation (a people) is seen as the source of sovereignty which that state in turn is founded on.

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Keeping pace with the development of western Indian style many art centres were established in the Marwar area. Arbud mandal representing Abu mountain region, has been an old and important art centre. Here the art of sculpture and of painting reached their zenith. Shringdhar, the artist (7th Century) and Shivanag, the sculptors played a vital role in the artistic excellence of the area. Nagour with its various surnames like Nagpur, Nagpattan, Ahipur, Bhujangnagar and Ahichhatrapur remained the capital of this region. It came under the sway of the Chatukya ruler of Gujarat and also during the reign of the chauhan Later on the chauhan rule was re-established in this area. There after came the Muslim with their iconoclastic zeal as a result of which the art world suffered greatly, However, the Jain Granth Bhandar here kept on progressing in the collection work. More than fifteen thousand works remained preserved here. This fact has been mentioned in 'Dharama-Sangrah Shravakachar' (Com. 1541).

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The new bank licenses, up for grabs, are set to actuate a new era in tenacious Indian banking sector by inducing fresh blood in the markets. India is meticulously progressing in the global financial game that is dominated by the likes of Uncle Sams and John Bulls. If the question is does India need more ‘banking’ in its political territory? Then the answer is yes, from the view point of tapping humongous population involved in virtue of deposits and bolstering the high growth that is targeted by channelizing funds for progressive use and most importantly, making it inclusive. Succinctly put, India deals with a financing model that is predominantly bank-oriented, which is crippled by the absence of debt market and hence reckons on the banking system as a source for funds for both short and long term growth. India's economic growth continued despite some modest moderation, during the recent global recession that unearthed in notable advanced economies. RBI's cautious credit policy, kept the economy on growth track ensuring balance of price and financial stability.

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Domestic violence is in extremely complex and vicious form of abuse, committed most often within the four walls of the family house and/or within a particular deep-rooted power dynamic and socio-economic structure, which do not allow even the acknowledgement or recognition of this abuse. Meaning and detection of domestic violence itself is the most demanding task.

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Image dehazing has significant application in many research areas namely pattern analysis and image processing, environment monitoring and marine surveillance. The scattering of light due to the presence of atmospheric particle plays a major role in color fading and contract reduction of images. Many researchers have published a plenty of dehazing algorithm and their implementation in many vision applications. The main purpose of this article is to concisely present an understanding of various haze removal algorithms employed for image processing and present a detailed understanding of some prominent and classical dehazing approaches in terms of basic principle and typical application in visibility restoration.

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Here, Cu2O-CuO nanostructure were in-situ synthesized on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for the first time under one pot mild reaction condition. The as-obtained ternary nanocomposite system shows outstanding photocatalytic activity towards dye degradation due to enhanced charge transfer from Cu2O semiconductor to CuO and graphene sheets.