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Volume -5 Issue - 2
Month [Year] -- February [2014]
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   No of Download : 14    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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There has been growing importance of Mutual Fund Investment in India. When compared with other financial instruments, investments in Mutual funds are safer and also yields more returns on the portfolio investment. Indian mutual fund has gained a lot of popularity from the past few years. Earlier only UTI enjoyed the monopoly in this industry but with the passage of time many new players entered the market, due to which the UTI monopoly breaks down and the industry faces a severe competition. As the time passes this industry has become a buzz word in the Indian financial system. So it is very important to know the investors’ perception about this industry. This study is done to determine the preferences of investors for investment in mutual funds in India. The objectives of the study were to identify the factors that influence the preferences of investors for investment in mutual fund, to analyze investment options other than mutual funds and to plan the promotion of mutual fund investment in India. The sample were divided into two i.e. Prospective and Existing investors. The study reveals the most preferred factor for investment in mutual fund by the existing investors is high return and tax benefits. Bank is the main factor which influences their investment decision as the preferred distribution channel for investment.

   No of Download : 8    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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In this paper the performance evaluation of Indian mutual funds in a bear market is carried out through relative performance index, risk-return analysis, Treynor's ratio, Sharp's ratio, Sharp's measure, Jensen's measure, and Fama's measure. The data used is monthly closing NAVs. The source of data is website of Association of Mutual Funds in India (AMFI). 24 schemes were used for analysis. Mean monthly (logarithmic) return and risk of the sample mutual fund schemes during the period were 0.53% and 6.50%, respectively, compared to similar statistics of 0.12% and 7.67% for market portfolio. The results of performance measures suggest that most of the mutual fund schemes in the sample of 24 were able to satisfy investor's expectations by giving excess returns over expected returns based on both premium for systematic risk and total risk.

   No of Download : 8    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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It was in the year 1998-99, when Prime Minister Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee made a statement in parliament about disinvestment –"Disinvestment / Privatization is the only panacea for ills of loss making public sector undertakings." And soon the response from the opposition was "You can't sell the family silver to meet your daily expenditure." The Indian approach towards disinvestment seems to have gone totally wrong ever since the reforms process was initiated in the early 90's. The country now has lost the opportunity and its way as the pace of the entire process is very slow and lethargic in nature. While all the politicians claim to share a common platform on this issue but find the escape route by stating – "We agree in principle but differ in details", "Decide about strategic sale or public offer", "is it videshi or swedeshi", so on and so forth.

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   No of Download : 4    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The present importance of tertiary sector is the highest among all sectors and may be understood as follows: India's economic output is represented by the primary sector, the secondary sector and the tertiary sector. The primary sector, secondary sector and tertiary sectors account for 17.4%, 25.8%, 56.9%of the GDP respectively. Unfortunately the common man, the politicians and the economists do not understand the importance of the tertiary sector in economic development. As an economy grows prosperous, its people do not require more and more of agricultural crops and manufactured output. People need more of services rather than physical goods for better quality life. They need more of transport (road, air, sea, water, rail), more of communication ( mobiles, internet, ), more of education, more of training, more of healthcare, doctors, nurses, hospitals, diagnostic centers, more of entertainment (TV shows, movies, ) more technicians and artisans for repair and maintenance of buildings, houses, household equipments, plumbers, electricians, sewerage systems, insurance, more courier services, more banks, ATMs, more organised shopping malls, car parking, and so on. Income and employment growth flies in the tertiary sector. Tertiary sector includes scientific research and innovations that increases productivity and provide engineering and construction consultancy support services for all projects in all sectors. It is foolish to think the economies will continuously grow with primary and secondary sectors retaining the same importance or weight in the economy. Most advanced and rich countries have more than 80% of employment and income in the services sector. In the US, agriculture is less than 1%.

   No of Download : 16    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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अखिलं भारतीयं शास्त्रजातं मानवेभ्य: सर्वविधोन्नतिमार्गानेवोपदिशति। तत्र वेदादारभ्य अद्य यावत्‌ सर्वत्रैव शास्त्रेषु न केवलं पारलौकिकसुखसमृद्ध्‌यर्थम्‌ उपाया: प्रकीर्तिता: अपितु लोकयात्रार्थमपि तत्र वर्णितं वर्त्तते। आध्यात्मिकग्रन्थेष्वपि लौकिकस्य सुखस्य वर्णनं वर्त्तते एव कुशलान्न प्रमदितव्यम्‌, भूत्यै न प्रमदितव्यम्‌ (तै.उप. अनुवाक: 11) कुर्वन्नेवेह कर्माणि जिजीविषेच्छतं समा: (ईशा. उप. मन्त्र 2) शरीरयात्रापि च ते न प्रसिद्ध्‌येदकर्मण: (गीता अ. 3 श्लोक 8) इत्यादीनां वचनानां तत्र प्रमाणत्वात्‌। भारतीयमनीषा मानवव्यक्तित्वस्य समग्रतामेव प्रस्तौति अत एव जीवनस्य परमोद्‌देश्यत्वेन चतुर्विधपुरुषार्था: धर्मार्थकाममोक्षाख्या: भारतीय शास्त्रेषु निगदिता:।

   No of Download : 31    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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भगवदगीतोपनिषद्‌- भगवद्‌ + गीता + उपनिषद्‌। शब्दार्थ की दृष्टि से अर्थ हुआ भगवान के द्वारा गायी गई उपनिषदें। भगवान का अर्थ है भग्‌ से युक्त तथा उपनिषद्‌ का अर्थ है निकट बैठना। भग के अर्थ को समझने से पूर्व भम्‌ शब्द को समझना होगा। भम्‌ का अर्थ है ज्योति। सूर्य, चन्द्र, तारे, अग्नि और विद्युत तो पाँच भौतिक ज्योतियाँ है, परन्तु यहाँ ज्योति से तात्पर्य आत्मज्योति व ज्ञान ज्योति है। ‘‘जो इस भम्‌ को गमयति प्राप्त करा दें वही भग्‌ है व जो इस भग को धारण करे वही भगवान है।

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   No of Download : 15    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The teaching and learning process in the heart of education. On it depends the fulfillment of the aims and the objectives of education. It is the most powerful instrument of education. To bring about desired changes in the students. The essential aspect of teaching and bearing process and discussion, interaction, adaptation and reflection. Teaching can become more effective by relating it to process of bearing, by using teaching. Aid, by understanding principles, goals & objectives of education in right perspective. The various learning perspectives emerged are behaviorist, cognivist and constructivist, but it is better to think on these theories togetherly as a rang of possibility, integrated in learning experiences.

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   No of Download : 23    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The present study was conducted on the aspect of sports facilities and the scenario of sports achievements in schools of Karnal. To conduct the present study, the physical education teacher from different schools was randomly selected from the government and public schools.Finally, total 30 schools were selected, so, the teachers of respected schools were acted as the subject for the survey study. It means these teachers were the survey population for the presented study. A self- made questionnaire was administered to collect the data on selected variables. Each and every school was visited personally by the research scholar to get the questionnaires filled.After receiving all 30 questionnaires from the school on the various variables, the responses were converted in to raw data. Further the raw data wastabulated and presented in different tables in the fashion to represent each variable of investigation.

   No of Download : 8    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

भारत में बेरोजगारी की समस्या जब चरम सीमा पर थी। उस समय भारत सरकार ने राष्ट्रीय ग्रामीण रोजगार गारंटी अधिनियम बनाया जो वर्ष 2005 में पारित हुआ। 2 फरवरी, 2006 से राष्ट्रीय ग्रामीण रोजगार गारंटी अधिनियम, 2005 लागू किया गया। वर्ष 2009-10 के दौरान, एक संशोधन के माध्यम से नरेगा को ‘‘महात्मा गांधी राष्ट्रीय रोजगार गारंटी अधिनियम’’ नामक नया नाम दिया गया है। इस अधिनियम का उद्देश्य ऐसे प्रत्येक ग्रामीण परिवार जिनके वयस्क सदस्य अकुशल शारीरिक श्रमकार्य करने के इच्छुक हैं, को एक वित्त वर्ष में कम से कम 100 दिनों का गारंटीयुक्त मजदूरी रोजगार उपलब्ध कराना है। इस अधिनियम ने रोजगार सृजन में बहुत ही महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभायी है।

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   No of Download : 4    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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This paper measures the productivity impact of automobile and textile employee involvement. Productivity has become the buzzword of our times. Everyone wants only one thing-more the productivity, the better it is improvement in technology is considered as the most effective intervention for increasing productivity. The change in technology brings in a host of things. In this article, relationship of workers participation and productivity has been explored. It provides insight which can be used to control the variable. The perception of management and that of the workers may differ. After all this intervention is to be implemented through workers. Human factors need to be kept in view. It simultaneously takes account of endogeneity of participative work organization by variable regressions.

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   No of Download : 9    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Chlorophytum borivilianum L., Liliaceae ( Safed moosli) holds an important position in Indian herbal medicine. The roots are widely used as a natural "sex tonic" and is an integral part of more than 100 herbal drug formulations. Although Indian forests are rich in safed musli demand is increasing rapidly in Indian and international drug markets. Foreign demand has been estimated as 300-700 tones annually, a quantity that Indian forests cannot sustain. Present study, shoot proliferation and multiplication response using different expalnts were compared on solid medium. Stem disc used as explants and culture on MS medium with different concentration of BAP (6-benzyl amino purine) and IAA (Indole acetic acid) at 1.0, 3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 9.0, 11.0 mg/l.Rooting and biohardeinig response also observed. RAPD marker used to testing genetic fidelity for prepared micro-cloned progeny. 98% survival of micro-cloned progeny at soil transplantation and all are genetically stable.

   No of Download : 10    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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India continued to follow import substitution strategy (ISS) of growth during the period 1951-1980. “The ISS with heavy ‘industry’ first strategy with central planning created a plethora of controls, procedures, permits and bureaucratic restrictions”. The ISS, along with other factors landed us into economic crisis of 1990-91. The New Economic Policy of July, 1991 heralded a new era for India by introducing comprehensive reforms in industrial sectors as well as in services sector .It was expected that these policy measures would restore the health of the economy and put it on higher growth trajectory.

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   No of Download : 3    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Organizations are managed and staffed by people. Without people, organizations cannot exist. Indeed, the challenge, the opportunity, and also the frustration of creating and managing organizations frequently stem from the people related problems that arising within them. Like snowflakes, no two people are exactly alike, and everyone differs physically and psychologically from everyone else.

   No of Download : 14    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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पिछले कई दशकों के अथक प्रयास के बाद भारत, चीन और जापान आर्थिक, वैदेशिक सामरिक एवं अन्य क्षेत्र में विकास कर एशिया महाद्वीप के त्रिकोण कहे जाने लगें। चीन की दादागीरी के चलते यह धुरी अब भारत और जापान की तरफ मुड़ती दिखाई दे रही हैं। इन दोनों के मजबूत होते सम्बन्ध चीनी एकाधिकार को चुनौती पेश कर सकते है। दिसम्बर 2013 में विश्व के सबसे पुराने राजवंश का 2600 वर्षो के इतिहास में पहली बार भारत आना मील का पत्थर सिद्ध होगा। अब गणतन्त्र दिवस परेड के मुख्य अतिथि के रुप में जापानी प्रधानमंत्री सिजो एवी के भारत आगमन से दोनो लोकतंत्रों को जोड़ने वाली स्वतन्तत्रा और सम्पन्नता की नीति के साथ-साथ सामरिक अर्थ में भी देखा जा रहा हैं। इन दोनो के मिलने से हिन्द महासागर एवं पूर्वी एशिया में घटने वाली घटनाओं पर शक्ति सन्तुलन भी निर्धारित होगा। भारत और जापान के बीच बढ़ती साझेदारी एशिया के नवनिर्माण में वही स्थान रखते है जो चीन के उत्थान एवं अमेंरिका की नयी एशिया धुरी नीति का है।

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   No of Download : 56    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Consumer buying behavior is a generic term which explains the consumer choice or preferences for a particular product. The consumer behavior pattern shows the identity, value, acceptance and marketing share. The buying pattern and the response of consumers will give the subsequent data for more modification in case of growth of product in the market. The focus is also made on the competitor characteristics and the type of fruit juice launch in the market to capture their target consumers. The objective of the study deals with the demand of a product which can be known from the consumer’s buying pattern and parameters like quality, quantity, availability, price and packaging and delivery mode. The demand also depends upon some of the other factors like consumer’s awareness, purchasing power population, promotional activities of product in the market and seasonality. It is found from the study that profession wise highest number of consumers of fruit juices are the students. For each category of consumers their quantity of purchase is also obtained, which varies according to their income and physical need. In this study it is found that packaging also has great importance towards consumer preference as it gives rise to massive purchase and storage. Customers want western style packaging with Indian style taste. The consumers generally tend towards natural flavor in spite of artificial added flavors with synthetic colors in it.

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   No of Download : 33    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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भगवती प्रसाद वाजपेयी के उपन्यास नारी प्रेम सम्बन्धी उद्भावनाओं से आच्छादित तथा पे्रम पथ मूलक है। नारी प्रेम से प्रेरित कर्तव्य और वासना का दृष्टात्मक चित्रण किया गया है। वाजपेयी जी प्रेम भाव के निरछलता, शिलता, पवित्रता पर विश्वास करते दिखाई देते हैं। शिक्षित नारी की सामाजिक स्थिति तथा तत्सम्बन्धी प्रेमभावना का विकास हमें उनके उपन्यासों में देखने को मिलता है। आर्दशवादी दृष्टिकोण के बीच प्रेममूलक जिजीविषा का दस्तावेज उनके उपन्यासों में बड़े ही नाटकीय ढंग से दर्शाया गया है। उनके उपन्यासों की मूल चेतना नारी प्रेम भाव ही है।

   No of Download : 9    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Indian banks have now realized that it no longer pays to have transaction based operating. This has shifted their focus from operational services to customer centric services. Today they are looking at newer ways to make a customer’s banking experience more convenient and effective. This can be done by using new technology, tools and techniques to identify customer needs and then offering products to match them. In the financial world, product superiority does not last long as it is relatively easy to copy products. So the real strength comes from operational excellence and understanding the customer and developing rapport with them.

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   No of Download : 4    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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This paper attempts to study the Comparative study concept of the cycle erosion based on two theories given by W.M.DAVIS and Walther Penck. It’s based on some physical geography books and internet web sites. W.M. Davis was geography professor at Harvard University. He wrote about his model from 1880-1938, travelled and spoke widely. Like his contemporaries in natural science he was strongly influenced by Charles Darwin (On the Origin of the Species) and Charles Lyell (Principles of Geology), although used evolution as a notion of history (inevitable progress or change over time) rather than a process and took a deterministic rather than probabilistic view of evolution like Darwin.

   No of Download : 16    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Even though Amazon.com has received most of the hype and publicity surrounding e- commerce, eBay has quietly built an innovative business truly suited to the Internet. Initially, Amazon sought to merely replicate a catalog business model online. Its technology may have been innovative- but its business model was not. On the other hand, eBay recognized the unique nature of the Internet and enabled both buying and selling online with spectacular results. Its auction format was a winner. eBay also clearly demonstrated that profits do not have to come in the way of growth. Amazon was initially focused on BN.com as a competitor. Over time, Amazon came to recognize eBay as the competitor. Its initial foray into auctions was a spectacular failure. Now, Amazon is trying to compete with eBay by facilitating selling and strengthening its affiliates program.

   No of Download : 12    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Financial Intermediation sector in India is a highly regulated industry. Banks challenges range from inefficient allocation of infrastructure to customer stickiness. To adapt and survive, banks in India are adopting multiple techniques to entice and retain clients. Technology not only simplifies the banking process and service channels but also plays an important role in reducing the cost effectively. Many Indian banks have embarked on the journey of technology revolution and are at varying degrees of success. This is due to the fact that not all of them have understood diversity of their customer base and their varying needs. Most of the PSU and other private sector banks have also deployed channels viz. internet banking and ATM's. But in mobile banking, a number of banks are in the early stages. The main objective of this research paper is to adjudge the present and future scenario of M-banking along with the prospects and challenges ahead in implementation.

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   No of Download : 16    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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In today’s competitive era every individual tries to secure their future, as they understand the importance of Financial Planning.Every rational individual keeps on searching for new investment avenues so that they can grow their money and at the same time ensuring that their money is in safe hands.Mutual Funds are a good option for such category of individuals.But there are so many mutual funds in the market,how should a customer choose the best among all.This Paper focuses on understanding the functioning of mutual funds and benefits of mutual funds to investors. It also helps in understanding different schemes of prominent funds in India such as equity, income, balance as well as the returns associated with those schemes.The study was done to ascertain the asset allocation, entry load, exit load, associated with the mutual funds.

   No of Download : 262    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The practice of celebrity endorsements has proliferated over time. Now days it has become a pervasive element of advertising industry especially in India. Celebrity endorsement business has become a multi-million industry in India. Marketers use celebrity endorsers to influence the purchase decision of consumers in order to increase their sales and extend their market shares. This made the author curious to explore the impact of celebrity endorsements on consumer buying behaviour. This paper focuses on examining the perception of Indian consumers about celebrity endorsements, examining the celebrity attributes likely to influence consumer purchase intentions and finally the impact of celebrity endorsements on their purchase intention.

   No of Download : 33    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Women empowerment and its challenges in India is burning issue not in India but worldwide. Women empowerment refers to increasing the economic, political, social, educational, or spiritual strength of women in society. Women Empowerment occurs through improvement of their conditions, standards, events, and a global perspective of life.

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   No of Download : 84    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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संत कबीर की भाषा विविधता के तीन कारण परिलक्षित होते है एक, कबीर युगीन परिस्थितियां ऐसी थी कि उन्होंने एक विषय पर नहीं अपितु हर विषय पर अभिव्यक्ति दी। राजनीतिक, सामाजिक, धार्मिक परिस्थितियां मानव को त्रस्त कर चुकी थी। अतः कबीर ने एक ओर मानसिक, आत्मिक शान्ति के लिए अध्यात्मवाद अर्थात रहस्यवाद के माध्यम से छटपटाहट को अभिव्यक्त किया। उल्टवासी प्रतीकांे के प्रयोग से उनकी भाषा रहस्यमयी लगती है। इनका प्रयोग मानव मस्तिष्क को व्यायाम कराता नजर आता है। समाज मंे व्याप्त कुरीतियों, धार्मिक आडम्बरों, पाखण्ड एंव बाजारवाद पर प्रहार करते हुए कबीर ने ओजपूर्ण एंव व्यंग्यात्मक भाषा का प्रयोग किया है.

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Finance is the hub around which the whole economic system revolves and banking is an important as the arteries in the human body. Amongst the other sources of finance banking is highly emphasized today as the need of hour. Banking has a pivotal role to play in economic body. In developing country, like India, where the saving capacity of people is meagre and more than 58* percent population in our country depends on agriculture. Therefore agriculture has been taken as the backbone of Indian economy. That’s why Indian Government laid emphasis to increase the credit to this sector. After the passing of Co-operative Credit Society Act’1904, the tremendous efforts have been done by the govt. to eradicate the problems faced by the farmers and general public. Due the emergence of severe competition from commercial banks, undue intervention of political parties and failure of some cooperative banks the pace of cooperative credit institution has drastically changed and now it become able to fulfil the credit requirements of farmers by providing timely credit facilities to them.

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   No of Download : 16    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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This paper has set out the key issues related to entrepreneurship in the context of its relationship with rural development. The analysis is broadened to understand the determinants of rural entrepreneurship and the environment conducive to its development. The policies that are necessary to make this environment favorable have been discussed in detail. The conclusion is that to accelerate rural development in rural areas therefore it is necessary to promote entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurial orientation in rural areas is based on stimulating local entrepreneurial talent and subsequent growth of indigenous companies. This in turn would create jobs and add economic value to a region, and at the same time, it will keep scarce resources within the community.

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A Special Economic Zone is a geographical region that has more liberal economic laws than a country’s typical economic laws. The basic aim of SEZ is to increase the regional development through promote exports, generate additional economic activities, encourage domestic and foreign investment, create employment opportunities and develop infrastructural facilities etc. The GoI introduced SEZ in EXIM Policy – 2000 and passed SEZ Act 2005 subsequently supported with SEZ rules 2006.Haryana is the first state passed SEZ Act. The Government of Haryana signed a pact with ‘Reliance Industries Limited to develop a SEZ Gurgaon Jhajjar districts. This signed act as a catalysis for investors and a large number of SEZ proposals have been received by government. The government gives consent without analyzing of their role in regional development. The present paper examined the spatial pattern of SEZs in Haryana and assesses its role in regional development.

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The study examined the effects of gender, length of experience and age on the leadership behaviourof principals. A sample of 140 principals (92 males and 42 females) was randomly drawn from Senior Secondary Schools of Haryana. In order to fulfill the objectives of the study mean, standard deviation and t-test was used. The result showed gender does not affect the leadership behaviour of the principals. However, Length of experience and age significantly affect the leadership behaviour of the principals. It was found that more experienced principals showed effective leadership behaviour in compariosion to their less experienced counterparts. Principals belonging to higher age group also showed effective leadership behaviour.

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State Financial Corporations (SFCs) provide finance to industries. They were established with the purpose of promoting the growth of small, medium and large-scale industries in the country in order to expand the growth of industries and make the nation autonomous. They play a major role in the industrial development of regions. SFCs have been providing finance, technical competence, etc., to the small and medium-scale industries in the states. The main objective of the study is to study the development role played by HFC in industrial development of Haryana. The study is analytical in nature. The data for the present study have been obtained from the annual reports of HFC. Result shows HFC has been instrumental in industrialization and fulfilling of various social obligations of the state like economic development, empowerment of weaker sections, generation of employment, balanced regional development and development of backward areas etc.

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In the past four decades the Haryana witness of rapid Socio-Economic change, new Social strata have emerged with new demand and expectation. Higher education and expanded employment based govt. programme and assistance, transportation and information technology have changed the society and increased social mobility. These transformations, in turn, have polarized Haryana society along certain traditional divide: Rural vs Urban, Employed vs Unemployed and Men vs Women. This article examines the dynamic interaction and socio- economic developments among various sectors of Haryana society. The changes have emerged since 1966 socio-economic grouping with distinct interests in political and Socio-economic composition of Haryana Govt. Policies.

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मूर्धन्य साहित्यकार श्री विष्णु प्रभाकर का जन्म उŸार प्रदेश के मुज्जफर पुर जिले के मीरापुर गाँव में 20 जुलाई 1912 को हुआ। उनके पिता का नाम दुर्गादास तथा माता का नाम महादेवी था। उनकी प्रारम्भिक परीक्षा उनके बैठक गाँव में ही हुआ। 11 वर्ष की आयु में शिक्षा हेतु वे अपने मामा जी के साथ हिसार चले गये। वहीं फिर लाहौर से 1942 में बीए उपाधि प्राप्त की।

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Fertilizer is a chemically produced substance used to provide the essential nutrients for the crop. Fertilizers are of two types straight and complex. Straight Fertilizers consists of only N or P or K whereas Complex Fertilizers/Compound Fertilizers consist of the combination of NP, NPK, and NPKS etc. Fertilizers are labelled according to the percentage of nutrient contained in the product. The first number denotes the percentage of N in the product, second number denotes the percentage of P in the product, third number denotes the percentage of K and fourth number denotes the percentage of Sulphur. Fertilizers have played a crucial role in stimulating the growth of agricultural produce at the time of green revolution and even now.

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Confidant intrusion detection systems are the most preferable intrusion detection system in MANETs. This protocol resolves the watchdog and Pathrater problem that it does punish misbehaving nodes by not using them in routing and not forwarding packets through them. Although importance of this mechanism is clear, it has some issues related to false reports. In this work we demonstrate that an extra effort must be done to solve drawbacks that are still present when using them in MANET.

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भारतीय संस्कृति के मूलाधारस्वरूप वेदों के विषय में भी एक विवाद प्रारम्भ से ही है कि वेद चार हैं या तीन? वेदत्रयी, विद्यात्रयी, त्रयो वेदा अजायन्त, ऋषयस्त्रयीविदो विदु: आदि उक्तियों से सिद्ध होता है कि वेद तीन ही हैं। किन्तु वेदों, उपनिषदों, ब्राह्मणग्रन्थों, दर्शनों आदि प्राचीन वाङ्‌मय से ही स्पष्ट हो जाता है कि वेद चार ही हैं। इस विवदास्पद विषय का विवेचन इस प्रकार से द्रष्टव्य है-

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The asrama system began to crumble in the post-Harsha period due to the transformation of gurukulas into mandirs, mathas, state sponsored universities and the introduction of child marriage in case of boys. The lower varna people became attracted towards the sanyasasrama due to the rising influence of heretical sects among them. The new developments weakened the other asramas especially the vanaprasthasrama. A rising trend is seen in the practice of atamotsarg for attainment of salvation but it was restricted by the end of early medieval period.

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मोहन दास कर्मचन्द गांधी एक महान नेता ही नहीं थे बल्कि एक व्यावहारिक दार्षनिक और शैक्षिक विचारक थे । वे एक जाति रहित तथा स्वतन्त्र समाज की रचना करना चाहते थे जहां किसी भी प्रकार का शोषण और भेदभाव न हो। इसके लिए उन्होंने षिक्षा को साधन के रूप में माना । उनका षिक्षा दर्षन देष के आर्थिक, सामाजिक व राजनैतिक जीवन से प्राप्त उनके अनुभवों का परिणाम था। गांधी जी ने किसी नए दर्षन का निर्माण नहीं किया बल्कि उन्होंने भारतीय दर्षन की मूलभूत बातों को ही व्यावहारिक रूप दिया । गांधी जी के षिक्षा सम्बन्धी विचार उनके सामान्य दर्षन का क्रियात्मक रूप है।

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A mutual fund, also referred to as an open-end fund, is an investment company that spreads its money across a diversified portfolio of securities-including stocks, bonds or money market instruments. Mutual fund investors make money either by receiving dividends and interest from their investments, or by the rise in value of the securities. Mutual fund is a mechanism for pooling the resources by issuing units to the investors and investing funds in securities in accordance with objectives as disclosed in offer document. Sondhi and Jain (2006) found his study that the majority of the sample scheme had generated positive alpha values out of which some funds had exhibited statistically significant alpha values, implying that the investment managers had added value to the portfolios by their stock selection abilities. The study under consideration is based on the performance outcomes of Ten public as well as Ten private sector mutual fund schemes

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Working capital is defined in terms of Net Working capital, i.e, Current assets - Current liabilities. Working Capital Ratio refers to how much capital a company should maintain to achieve zero or possibly lower risk in conducting its daily operational activities. In order to better understand working capital management, lets understand Current Assets and Current Liabilities. Current assets are those short-term assets that can be converted into cash easily and current liabilities are those liabilities, which are due in near future generally, within a year.

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This paper is to show the dynamic role of Indian entrepreneurs in the area of e-commerce. e-commerce in India is increasing rapidly day by day, so as role of Indian entrepreneurs in this area. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE(e-commerce) is a type of industry where the buying and selling of products or services is conducted over electronic systems such as the internet and other computer networks. Various components of e-commerce are mobile commerce (aided by mobile phone),internet marketing, online fund transfer etc.

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A chemical synthesis begins by selection of compounds that are known as reagents or reactants. Various reaction types can be applied to these to synthesize the product, or an intermediate product. This requires mixing the compounds in a reaction vessel such as a chemical reactor or a simple round-bottom flask. Many reactions require some form ofworkup procedure before the final product is isolated. The amount of product in a chemical synthesis is the reaction yield. Typically, chemical yields are expressed as a weight in grams or as a percentage of the total theoretical quantity of product that could be produced. A side reaction is an unwanted chemical reaction taking place that diminishes the yield of the desired product.

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To start with one would not be incorrect to state that the institution of caste is a threat to national integration. The caste system is based on varna which classifies the Indian society into four fold division of Brahmin(Scholar-priest) ,Kshatriya(Warrior), Vaishya(Business class) and Sudra(Peasants and laborers). However the complexities of

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Rabindranath Tagore was prolific writer and pioneer in many fields. He was a poet, painter, playwright, actor, producer, musician, patriot, novelist, translator and short story writer at once. He was also called as ‘Gurdeva’ because he was a reformer, philosopher and prophet. Gandhiji called him as ‘Rishi.’ Tagore enriched our literature with numerous poems, plays, short stories, novels and prose. Tagore won for him the Nobel Prize and international recognition and admiration, who was the first, gained for modern India a place on the world literary scene.

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INTRODUCTION: The most operational irritants to Centre State Relations springs in administrative sphere & they have led to most slanderous accusation against executive functionaries and decision makers. It is an area in which seemingly detailed provisions of the Constitution have not helped much. In the modern administrative age, administration plays a very significant role by way of enforcing the law of promoting socio-economic welfare of the people. The pattern of administrative relationship between the Centre and the State, therefore, assumes a great significance in developing country like India.

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From a food grain importing country in the 1950’s, India turned itself to a net exporter of food grains to the world. The presence of India’s agricultural sector, particularly in exports is modest in size in the international market. After the new economic reforms in 1991, there is a shift in the policy from import substitution to export promotion. India has a competitive advantage in several commodities for agricultural exports due to cheap labor, self sufficiency in inputs and diverse climatic conditions. For certain commodities like rice and several dairy products, India have a niche market.

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Chitra Banerjee beautifully and poetically paints that picture beyond death where human beings are freed from all the bondages of the earthly life. As Draupdi is dying the only person she is conscious of is Krishna, the only love to stand by her at the hour of death. He makes her think of her life, she remembers the whole sequence of events, even her birth. She realizes that she just played her part, did what she was supposed to do. The Palace of Illusions attempts to give one of the strong women in this epic a voice. The author makes Panchaali retell the story of famous epic the way she might have perceived it. As opposed to male centric interpretations, she tells her own reasons for saying what she said and doing what she did. She narrates her own journey from childhood to the end of her life on this earth. The novel traces the evolution of Draupadi from an insecure girl who avoided social contact due to her dark skin to a great queen playing a significant role in the historically defining moments. As a well known character, Draupadi has been much maligned and misunderstood. But as she tells her own story we realise that she was just a human being, reacting like a normal person in what were undoubtedly abnormal and challenging circumstances.

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यह सर्वविदित तथ्य है कि भारतीय संविधान का अनुच्छेद 19 सभी नागरिकों को भाषण तथा अभिव्यक्ति की स्वतन्त्रता प्रदान करता है। अभिव्यक्ति की क्रिया जानने के अभाव में संभव नहीं है। 1976 में राजनारायण बनाम उत्तरप्रदेश के एक अभियोग में सर्वोच्च न्यायालय ने इसी बात की पुष्टि की थी। इस तरह सूचना का अधिकार मौलिक अधिकार है। लोकतन्त्रीय शासन व्यवस्था में सभी नागरिकों को समान अभियक्ति का अधिकार मिलना उनका मानव अधिकार है। सूचना का अधिकार अधिनियम-2005 एक ऐसी व्यवस्था कायम करता है कि लोकोन्मुखी प्रशासन अभिव्यक्त होने लगता है और प्रशासन तन्त्र में पारदर्शिता आती है व वह जनता के प्रति उत्तरदायी बना रहता है। इस अधिनियम के लागू होने से देश में ऐसे घोटाले उजागर हुए हैं जो इसके अभाव मंे जनता के सम्मुख कभी नहीं आ सकते थे। परन्तु यह एक विडम्बना ही है कि आज भारतीय लोकतन्त्र का एक बहुत बड़ा हिस्सा इसके उपयोग से अनजान है। अन्ततः इसके सफल संचालन में अनेकों बाधाऐं हैं, जिनका निराकरण अत्यन्त आवश्यक है। ’’

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The present paper presents an algorithm to find optimum time- cost trade off pairs in a fixed charge linear capacitated transportation problem with enhanced flow. Sometimes, situations arise where either reserve stocks have to be kept at supply points say, for emergencies, or there may be extra demand in the markets. In such situations, the total flow needs to be controlled or enhanced. Moreover, sometimes a fixed charge ( like set up cost for machines, landing fees at an airport, cost of renting a vehicle ) is also associated with every origin that gives rise to fixed charge problem. In this paper a special class of transportation problem is studied, where the total transportation flow is enhanced to a specified level. A numerical example is given to illustrate the developed algorithm.

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The term ‘Liberalisation’ seems to be very deceptive. Liberalisation in the present scenario only means ‘economic’ liberalisation. A general observation about the so-called ‘economic’ reforms is that it has more to hide than to reveal. As a liberalised country, India is still missing liberal elements such as individual liberty, tolerance, rule of law and equality. Economic reforms are missing the elements of social reforms. India is still a slave of the deeply rooted traditional beliefs, narrow-mindedness, caste discrimination practices, gender inequality etc. Over decades, this problem still remains unanswered!

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Flavonoids are wide group of phytonutrients which are found in all vegetables and fruits in less or large quantity. Flavonoids are basically polyphenolic compounds which attributeantioxidant properties. Kaempferol is an important member of flavonoids family. It is a common ingredient in verity of fruits like apples, grapes, strawberries and vegetables like beans, broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, onion, tomatoes etc.kaempferol is also found in tea.According to recent studies Kaempferol has potent health benefits due to its scavenging capacity. It can scavenge various highly reactive free radical species which are generated during various metabolic activities in the body. Studies also claimed that it has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Kaempferol is also reported as anti-microbial, anti-viral and has neuro protective effects.Kaempferol is also useful in prevention of arteriosclerosis by preventing the oxidation of low density lipoprotein and also helps in the formation of blood platelets in the body.Studies also indicate its cardio protective, neuroprotective, antidiabetic, anticancer,estrogenic/antiestrogenic,anti-osteoporotic, anxiolytic, analgesic and antiallergic. The aim of this review is to collect information concerning the scientific evidences for its various health benefits and to find out possible mechanism of its potent antioxidant activity and insight toxicological aspects. This review emphasize on review the studies so far in order to elucidate the possible beneficial health effects of kaempferol and to understand the possible mechanism involved in its antioxidant activity.

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बालक-बालिकाओं में अपने आसपास के परिवेश का बहुत प्रभाव पड़ता है जिसमें सबसे अधिक प्रभावशाली उसका घरेलु वातावरण होता है। इसके अंतर्गत वे समस्त संज्ञानात्मक, सृजनात्मक, संवेगात्मक, मूल्यपरक, सामाजिक सहयोग जैसे गुणों के मात्रात्मक तथा गुणात्मक मान होते हैं, जो बालकों को जीवन में अपने आस-पास तथा पारिवारिक अन्र्तसंबंधों से प्राप्त होते हैं। बच्चे परिवार में ही सामान्य आचरण की शिक्षा लेते हैं। विगत कुछ दशकों में यह तथ्य उभरकर सामने आया है कि बालक के शैक्षिक, संज्ञानात्मक तथा भावात्मक विकास में घरेलू वातावरण अत्यन्त महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका का निर्वहन करता है।