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Volume -4 Issue - 1
Month [Year] -- [2013]
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   No of Download : 24    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Article is in Hindi

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   No of Download : 9    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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This article is in Hindi ,Translated version will be available soon.

   No of Download : 29    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Article Is in Hindi

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   No of Download : 9    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Effect of Hans stories on modern Hindi Stories

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   No of Download : 3    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Introduction: Discretion is the fundamental basis to achieve the aim or objective of any statute or legal objectives. In the welfare state, we serve only via means of discretion for any contingency which is not properly laid down in any statute. The formulation of standard of its application varies by different facts and circumstances. If we are not able to handover the freedom to take steps according to the given situation, then we can say that we are unable to do any thing whereas physically and mentally sound, in other words, we may say that we invited problem himself.

   No of Download : 26    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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You know how traditional desktop computing works. The software programs you use are stored on each computer you own. The documents you create are stored on the computer on which they were created. And, although documents can be accessed from other computers on a network, they can't be accessed by computers outside the network.

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   No of Download : 15    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Scrum is an agile software development model based on multiple small teams working in an intensive and interdependent manner. The term is named for the scrum (or scrummage) formation in rugby, which is used to restart the game after an event that causes play to stop, such as an infringement.

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   No of Download : 5    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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ABSTRACT Recently I encountered myself with an article in a leading newspaper showing few traders worshipping gadgets along with Hindu goddesses Lakshmi and this piece of news aptly highlights the evolution of e – commerce as a viable business model and also very clearly depicts the threat experienced by the traditional brick mortar business model. India is at the cusp of a digital revolution. Declining broadband subscription prices, aided by the launch of 3G services, have been driving this trend. This has led to an ever-increasing number of “netizens.” Internet has become an integral part of this growing population segment for remaining connected with friends, accessing emails, buying movie tickets and ordering food. The changing lifestyles of the country’s urban population have also led many people relying on the internet for their shopping needs. The convenience of shopping from the comfort of one’s home and having a wide product assortment to choose from has brought about increased reliance on the online medium. The trend of online shopping is set to see greater heights in coming years, not just because of India’s rising internet population, but also due to changes in the supporting ecosystem.

   No of Download : 20    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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ABSTRACT Largest-ever study of deaths shows heart diseases have emerged as the number one killer in world. About 25 per cent of deaths in the age group of 25- 69 years occur because of heart diseases. If all age groups are included, heart diseases account for about 19 per cent of all deaths. It is the leading cause of death among males as well as females. It is also the leading cause of death in all regions though the numbers vary. The proportion of deaths caused by heart disease is the highest in south India (25 per cent) and lowest - 12 per cent - in the central region of India. The prediction of heart disease survivability has been a challenging research problem for many researchers. Since the early dates of the related research, much advancement has been recorded in several related fields. Therefore, the main objective of this manuscript is to report on a research project where we took advantage of those available technological advancements to develop prediction models for heart disease survivability. We used three popular data mining algorithms CART (Classification and Regression Tree), ID3 (Iterative Dichotomized 3) and decision table (DT) extracted from a decision tree or rule-based classifier to develop the prediction models using a large dataset. We also used 10-fold cross-validation methods to measure the unbiased estimate.

   No of Download : 12    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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There is some confusion in the words that there is a private equity which is generated in private company means a private sector company or private fund by Public Sector Company. But in true sense the private equity means not the formal way of raising capital. The period of 1980-2008 there is a great boom in the private equity. Many sprouting company required fund to finance their project. They can raise capital maximum to the shareholder’s to minimize these risk. Than the requirement of finance of these project by the different financing machinery, which can easily fund these project so, it comes to the private equity. Similarly sinking company that need to estimated their business required funds are finance.

   No of Download : 7    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Cancer detection is one of the important research topics in medical science. In bioinformatics age, gene expression data can be used for the cancer detection. Fuzzy sets are suitable for handling the issues related to understand ability of patterns, incomplete/noisy data. Classification is very important among techniques of data mining. Here in this paper we studied various classification algorithms like C4.5, CART, FDT over different cancer dataset. Accuracy is the main objective to estimate the performance of these algorithms over cancer datasets.

   No of Download : 12    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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This speculative paper argues that the caste system of India could be seen as a present day remnant of ‘tribal apartheid’ which came into being when Indo-European warlike nomadic pastoralists overran and dominated earlier urban Dravidian peoples. This form of discrimination based on identity is akin to racism. The enduring salience of caste and color consciousness among Indians forms one of the great modern paradoxes that have resisted Indian governmental attempts to bring about social change.

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In the era of Globalization where economies across the world are becoming interdependent on each other, the role of Government and dimension of its work has change drastically over the years. Governments are elected by the public and they must be held accountable for their spendings. This could be done effectively if government accounting is carried out in a transparent manner and its reporting should have all qualitative characteristics of financial reporting information. This article provides an overview of the Government accounting systems, need for it, the world wide practice for Government Accounting, the role of IPSASB in maintaining standards in Public Accounting and Indian Government Accounting system.

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Academic stress is a mental distress with respect to some apprehended frustration associated with academic failure, apprehension of such failure or even an awareness of the possibility of such failure (Gupta and Khan, 1987). In the context of school, academic stress means a pervasive sense of urgency to learn all these things which are related to or prescribed by the school (Shah, 1988). Academic stress is the product of a combination of academic-related demands that exceed the adaptive resources available to an individual. In India, about 4 million older people are reported to have psychological problems related to lack of family support, social support, physical disabilities, lack of income, dissatisfaction with their life achievements, changes in normal lifestyle and other social problems (Mc Evoy, 2007).

   No of Download : 9    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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आर्थिक विकास का मूल उद्देश्य जनसंख्या की वृद्धि की तुलना में आय में अधिक तेजी से वृद्धि करना है परन्तु आर्थिक विकास का निर्धारण जनसंख्या के आकार, गठन और उसकी सामाजिक सांस्कृतिक पृष्ठभूमि से होता है। अतः आर्थिक विकास की प्रक्रिया, कारण और प्रकृति समझने के लिए जनसंख्या की समस्या का विवेचन आवश्यक है।

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The Present study was mainly conducted to compare the drug de-addicted relapsers and non-relapsers in terms of their personality characteristics. Two samples of subjects consisting 150 relapsers and 150 non-relapsers were selected from those who were registered in drug de-addiction cum rehabilitation centres of Haryana. Both the groups were tested with the 16 personality factor questionnaire. Obtained data was analyzed by applying descriptive statistics i.e. mean, standard deviation and t-ratio. Results indicated that relapsers scored significantly higher on O and Q4 and lower on factors B, G, and Q3 of 16PF as compared to non-relapsers.

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Anita Desai is a powerful and persuasive voice among the Indian novelists cut off from their ethnic roots. A close study of Anita Desai's works reveals her struggle for female autonomy played out against the backdrop of the patriarchal cultural pattern.

   No of Download : 57    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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साहित्याशास्त्र में रस का प्रयोग मुख्यतः काव्यास्वाद या काव्यानन्द के लिएहुआ है। आरम्भ में रस का विवेचन नाट्य की दृष्टि से किया गया और वहीं रस मूल भावों की अभिव्यक्ति के लिए अनिवार्य हो गयी। आगे चलकर रस काव्य की आत्मा घोषित हुआ और आज भी काव्यशास्त्रीय सिद्धान्तों मंे सर्वाधिक महत्वपूर्ण बना हुआ है।

   No of Download : 10    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Due to greater emphasis on developmental and social banking, the quality of loan is affected. The quality of loan portfolio is very critical for the health of a bank. Contaminated loan portfolio is definitely a bane for any bank. It puts a severe dent on the profitability of a bank where it is out of proportion. Managing NPAs should be pro-active function than a reactive response. As management of Non-performing assets has direct bearing on the bottom lines of banks, it needs highly focused and professional approach.

   No of Download : 38    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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स्वामी दयानंद सरस्वती ने आर्य समाज की स्थापना द्वारा समाज मैं फली बुराईयों और कुरीतियों के समूल नाश करने का आह्वान किया। उन्होनें 1967 ई॰ में बम्बई में आर्य समाज की नींव रखी। आर्य समाज का विशेष प्रभाव उत्तरप्रदेश, गुजरात और पंजाब में रहा। दयानंद सरस्वती असाधारण व्यक्ति थे। वे संस्कृत के अनन्य विद्वान, वाग्मी और अत्यंत मेधावी थे। उनका व्यक्तित्व अतिशय दृढ़ और असमझौतावादी था। उनके विचारों में कहीं भी अस्पष्टता और रहस्यवादिता नहीं मिलेगी। उन्होनें आर्य समाज के लिए वेदों को आधार माना और वेदों कोे अपौरूषेय कहा। उन्होने कहा कि वैदिक धर्म ही सत्य और सार्वभौम है। स्वामी जी जानते थे कि भारत रूढियांे से ग्रस्त होने के साथ-साथ धर्मभीरू भी है। उनके अनुसार सामाजिक जनजागरण के लिए हिन्दू धर्म और वेद मुख्य कारक हो सकते हैं। वेदांे के प्रति जनमानस में आरम्भ से ही उच्च स्थान हैं। उनकी पुनव्र्याख्या करके स्वामी जी ने अनेकों पूर्वधारणाओं को खण्डित कर दिया।

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The most striking feature of Indian society is Varnasramadharma the classes or varnas and four stages. The aspect of Aryadharma was not conceived as mere conglomeration of four castes, but it was a social synthesis. The four social corporations theoretically existed throughout the country but they were not watertight compartments. New groups were given place in this scheme by ingenuous explanations. As a result several sub-castes came into existence in the period. The Manu Smriti does not mention Kayasthas. Yajnavalkya probably knew them only as writers and accountants. The ample job opportunity to the educated dvijas in governmental offices as a record keepers and clerks or in the office of the feudal lord provided a new social rank popularly known as Kayastha. By the early medieval period, they were consolidated into a caste.

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Introduction Agriculture continues to preoccupy major share of employment in India. The recent trends showed the faminisation of agriculture on account of unpaid family labour. Thus, the structural transformation for females has been slower nonetheless, there were expectations that liberalization may lead to mobility of labour, including female workers, from agriculture to non-agricultural sector. However, there is a growth in the tertiary sector employment due to the increasing level of education, urbanization, lack of opportunities in other sectors, and easy entry for women in low paying activities of this sector. Hence, it is worthwhile to examine trends of employment shift toward tertiary sector since it has been argued in the literature that tertiary sector lower the discrimination against female workers and generate the opportunities to take part in the paid employment.

   No of Download : 28    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Education is to be anticipated for Human resource development and then national development. However, in most of the developing countries, due to the inadequacy of resources it is almost unattainable to educate all of their citizens through on-campus teaching. Huge amount of money is necessary to establish the infrastructure for on-campus teaching which is out of the reach of the developing countries. In these circumstances, to educate their huge inhabitants the developing countries are to depend on open learning and distance education system. However, a question still stands: can the educators dissimulate knowledge to the learners smoothly through this new system of education? Some recent research shows that the graduates of the open and distance learning institutions in the developing countries are treated as second-grade graduates. This paper aims to identify the challenges or barriers in the development of distance and Open learning system in India and suggest possible alternatives may be followed to overcome the barriers

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The new report has shown that there is a steady rise in the disposable income and proliferation of internet across the country happen to be the primary market drivers for e-Commerce businesses in India. It is anticipated that the Semi Metro & Urban cities will contribute the most in shaping up the demand curve in the ensuing years. A thorough research on the market shows brimming opportunities for vendors from the mobile internet and social media space.

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   No of Download : 22    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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This paper used survey data from government and private schools in two districts of Jammu & Kashmir-Pulwama and Srinagar. To explore systematic differences between the two school types. Private school students have higher test scores than government school students. However, in both private and government schools the overall quality is low and learning gains from one grade to the next are small. There is large variation in the quality of both school types and observed school and teacher characteristics are weakly correlated with learning outcomes.

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Education is the Key Instrument in bringing the Social Change in any society all over the world. Education is a human right with immense power to transform. On its foundation rest the cornerstones of freedom, democracy, and sustainable human development. Education is desired for itself as it opens up a vast world of opportunities and ideas to the educated person. It is also of great instrumental value in the process of economic growth and development. Education plays a critical role in demographic transition; female education, in particular, is seen to important in the process of economic growth and development. Education also plays a critical role in the process of lowering fertility and mortality. Professional Education is associated with better Human resources outcomes. There is a strong correlation between literacy and life expectancy.

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Panchayati Raj Institutions, the grass root units of local self government have been considered as instruments of socio economic transformation in rural India. Involvement of people at the grass root level is the most important means of bringing about socio-economic development. Panchayati Raj is identified as institutional expression of democratic decentralization in India. Decentralization of power to the panchayats is seen as a means of empowering people and involving them in decision making process. Local governments being closer to the people can be more responsive to local needs and can make better use of resources.

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   No of Download : 25    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Secrecy is still prevailing in many department of government. After the independence we adopted constitution as a fundamental law of land and democracy as government. But true democracy survives only in openness and openness comes only through to knowledge or information. This right of information has been recognized as a fundamental right by our Supreme Court. From Raj Narain case to till that our Supreme Court has showed the way for the development of this right. The result of this creative interpretation by the Supreme Court is that now common man has come into a position that he can decided himself which representative is better for him and what is good for his health to consume. But efforts are continue by the vested interest, who already feels the heat of this right by to create hindrance in the development of this right. But Supreme Court continues to debar all such efforts which restricted the scope of this right.

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   No of Download : 27    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The eminent philosopher and educationist Aristotle goes on to say that ‘if we declare that the function of a man is a certain form of life and define that form of life as the exercise of the soul’s faculties and activities in association with rational principal and say that the function of a good man is to perform these activities well and rightly, and if the function is well performed when it is performed in accordance with its own proper excellence- from these promises it follows that good of man is the active exercise of his soul’s faculties in conformity with excellences or virtues, in conformity with the best and the most perfect among them.

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   No of Download : 21    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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India has made impressive economic gains in the last few decades and currently has the 4th largest economy in terms of purchasing power parity. Despite this improvement, more than 260 million people in India live in poverty. The reciprocity of poverty producing disability, and disability resulting in poverty creates unique challenges for the integrated education movement in India. This paper begins with a brief history of special education in India, including changes to government legislation and policy in the move towards more integrated educational provision. A number of strategies are presented to address the current challenges that Indian administrators and educators face in the move towards more integrated education.

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   No of Download : 16    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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This articleis in Hindi, Translated version will be available soon.

   No of Download : 41    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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This paper presents the role of academic library in information literacy in the present time. Information is the very important aspect for the growth of any country. In this context information literacy is an essential tool in the development of various fields. Academic library is an essential part of university as well as of an institution. In Academic library we can include university library, college library as well as school library. Academic libraries are playing an important role for information literacy. Academic libraries provide excellent services for the benefit of students, teachers, researchers, and all those who are interested in education. All over the world many of the schemes, policies and services provide for information literacy.

   No of Download : 22    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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A Criminal case is build upon the edifice of evidence that is admissible in law. For that witnesses are required. It is submitted that justice must not only be done but must be seen to be done. Free and fair trial is the very foundation of criminal Jurisprudence. Witnesses turning hostile have been a major problem being faced by the Criminal Justice System in India. The problem has gained prominence because of acquittals in high-profile cases like the Best Bakery case, the Jessica Lal case and others. If a person deposes false evidence before the court, due to false evidence, the spirit of the criminal jurisprudence will diminish, so one chapter XI was introduced by our legislature for checking the false evidence. It is in this context that it becomes important to understand what the problem is all about and whether the proposed amendment to the Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) would be the right solution to the problem.

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The use of e-commerce is more and more becoming a strategic necessity.Unfortunately, small and medium-sized firms (SMEs) seem to fall behind their larger counterparts in the adoption of e-commerce. For this reason a number of projects, both national and the international ,aiming at supporting e-commerce activities in SMEs are planned and initiated. It is fundamental that these projects are successful as a poor effort can complicate future initiatives. This requires thorough planning and knowledge about different aspects of the problem area. Unfortunately, research on e-commerce is often limited to drivers and barriers for adoption. This paper argues for a broader perspective and a conceptual framework is presented that integrates the context, content and process of e-commerce adoption.

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   No of Download : 15    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Mary Wollstonecraft argued that if women appeared stupid and passive and was excluded from decision making this was not because of some innate lack of intelligence but because women had not been told to cultivate their minds.

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Coaches are always interested in learning ways to help their athletes motivate themselves. Athletes are concerned with maintaining their motivation once they have acquired the drive and desire to succeed at their sport. Motivation is a complex concept involving the combination of direction and intensity of effort in a particular situation. For example: direction – playing for a team or club, attending a coaching clinic or aerobics class, joining a fitness centre, or seeking physiotherapy treatment for an injury: intensity – the amount of effort with which an athlete pursues their chosen direction (Weinberg & Gould, 1995).

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   No of Download : 18    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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This abstract demonstrates many different approaches to the topic of intercultural exchange between the British and the Indian population. Uncountable essays and novels deal with the ambiguous relationship between these two nations. One particularly interesting phenomenon is that authors from both sides try to write from different angles and perspectives and in that way to show empathy with their cultural counterpart.

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Vibrational spectroscopy encompasses the techniques of infrared (IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Both are techniques that have been in existence for more than 60 years, but both have shown remarkable growth in the past 10 years or so because of advances in instrumentation technology.

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   No of Download : 20    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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E-commerce originated in a standard for the exchange of business documents, such as orders or invoices, between suppliers and their business customers. This standard had its inception in the 1948–49 Berlin blockade and airlift.

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Perching on the high hills of North Eastern corner, Mizoram is a storehouse of natural beauty with its endless variety of landscape, hilly terrains, meandering streams deep gorges, rich wealth of flora and fauna. Flanked by Bangladesh on the west and Myanmar on the east and south, Mizoram occupies an importance strategic positions having a long international boundary of 722 Kms.

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Marketing ethics is viewed as important because of marketing’s interface with many diverse stakeholders. Marketing is a key functional area in the business organization that provides a visible interface with not only customers, but other stakeholders such as the media, investors, regulatory agencies, channel members, trade associations, as well as others. It is important when addressing marketing ethics to recognize that it should be examined from an individual, organizational, and societal perspective

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Biodiversity is essential for food security and nutrition and offers key options for sustainable livelihoods. Environmental integrity is critical for maintaining and building positive options for human well-being. Existing knowledge warrants immediate action to promote the sustainable use of biodiversity in food security and nutrition programmes, as a contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

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The purpose of this study was to establish the relationship between kinematic variables and the performance of national level basketball players in Jump Shot. The subjects for this study were 48 male basketball players who had represented there respective states in Guwahati National Games, 2007 in Basketball tournaments. Four teams were selected for this study namely: Assam, Chattisgarh, Kerala and Tamil Nadu (12 subjects from each team).There age ranged from eighteen to twenty seven years. All the subjects were right handed shooters. Subjects were familiarized with the testing equipments and procedures by the research scholar. The scores of the subjects in Jump Shot was used as criterion variable in this study.

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Most of us would have heard the term “compensation” in the context of getting paid for the work that we do. The work can be as part of full time engagement or part time in nature. From the perspective of the employers, the money that they pay to the employees in return for the work that they do is something that they need to plan for in an elaborate and systematic manner

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Keeping in view the problems faced by the college students and then ability to solve these problems the investigator selected the present problem for study. In the present study the investigator selected the students of B.A / B.Sc. / B.Com-II as a population. The investigator administered the group test of intelligence by S.K Pal and K.S Mishra and Youth problems inventory by Milhles Verma for collecting the data.

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There are several players involved in the building and management process for space premises. Below there is a short exposition of the central players in these processes. The descriptions are based on Ericsson and Johansson (1994), Friedman et al.(2005), Friedman et al.(2004) and Wurtzebach and Miles (1994).

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The e-Gov field (also called Electronic Government, Digital Government, Electronic Governance, and similar names) emerged in the late 1990´s. Since then it spurred several scientific conferences and journals. Because the field grew considerably in size, both its contents and position with respect to other research fields and disciplines need to be explained and discussed. What is e-Gov? What is e-Gov research? What does it mean for the field of Information Systems?

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   No of Download : 18    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Women entrepreneurs’ play an important role in local economies and a large percentage of micro-enterprises in developing countries are undertaken by women. Rural women frequently have primary responsibility for agricultural production, in addition to domestic responsibilities and childcare. In developing country like India where economic status of women is very pathetic especially in rural areas and opportunities of earning are very less in this scenario the Self Help

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A literary text is bound to be located in a definite socio-cultural context producing ideological positions, both explicit and implicit that makes a reading or interpretation meaningful. Hence, in this article an attempt would be made to interpret the novel Nishiddha Prithivi by the acclaimed Oriya novelist Pratibha Ray from a feminist perspective by investigating the politics of gender in the novel in its treatment of theme like love, sex, marriage, individual identity, characterization, dialogue, narrative technique, images, simile, and metaphors

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The Indian Constitution, apart from certain exceptions, guarantees equal rights to women, or in other words women have rights as those given to men. This concept of equal rights to women can be considered in three different aspects:

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Abstract

Literature always serves some purpose. Social concerns form the core of literature. Through satirical treatment of various eccentricities, follies and foibles embedded in human nature, a man of letters undertakes an uphill task to reform society and puts forth some plausible solution to manifold problems and complexities of life through artistic presentation of different deformities in the pages of literary works. Vijay Tendulkar, the famous Marathi playwright has used his mighty pen to create outstanding plays which hit out at multiple deformities found in human world. His plays inexorably ridicule patriarchal domination, gender discrimination, mental torment, hierarchical stratification, environmental degradation, dehumanizing of men leading to one’s spiritual imbalance. In his thought provoking play, Kamala, he presents all pervasive nature of humiliation and oppression. In one way or the other, most of the persons in the society have to taste oppression at one point or the other. The head of a family humiliates his better half, but he himself is humiliated at the hands of his employer. The family members harass their maid but Kamala, a woman purchased in an open auction triggers an illumination in Sarita, the housewife who starts thinking seriously of her own identity as a woman. Hypocritical attitude of most of the characters is also rejected by the playwright. In his play, Silence! The Court is in Session, Tendulkar very artistically lashes at class and gender deformity. The problems of live-in relationship and unwed motherhood provide pedestal for the conflict between an individual and society where innocence is mercilessly crushed by callousness and cruelty.

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Abstract

CD4 is a primary receptor used by HIV -1 gain entry host T – Cells . HIV -1 attaches to CD4 with a protein in its viral envelop known as gp-120 . The binding to CD4 count a shift in the confirmation of gp-120 allowing HIV-1 to bind two other surface receptors on the host cell

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Abstract

Operation Research is one of the popular managerial decision science tools used by profit and nonprofit organizations. As the global environment becomes fiercely competitive, Operation Research has gained significance in applications like world-class Manufacturing systems(WCM), Lean production, Six-sigma quality management, Benchmarking, Just-in-time (JIT) inventory techniques. The growth of global markets and the resulting increase in competition have highlighted the need for Public Administration. In order to be competitive, businesses must meet the challenges present in a global market by offering products and services that offer good value to their customers. Good value is a combination of low cost, high quality, rapid availability and real time information on these.

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Abstract

The term demography has been defined as the study of components of population variation and change. It was applied in French academic circles to statistics concerning the life coalitions of the people especially those effecting health and mortality, but in modern usage it has been restricted to the study of population, i.e. the quantitative analysis of population structure and trend.

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Abstract Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution (BRD) pattern of crops present a challenge in un-derstanding remote sensing signals acquired with various solar and view geometries. Much research is needed to improve our ability to model the BRD for retrieving the surface information using measurements at a few angles. The geometric-optical bidirectional reflectance model presented in this paper considers three-dimensional (or three scales) of canopy architecture: crop groups and pearl millet crop canopy. All these scales of canopy architecture are shown to have effects on the directional distribution of the reflected radiance from crop canopy.

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Abstract

नेदमविदितं विदूषां यत् वेदविहितयागानुष्ठानोपयोगी दर्शपूर्णमासदिकं पुण्यकर्मानुष्ठानोपयोगी ग्रहणसन्क्रान्त्यादिकं कालं विज्ञातुं मानुषाणां प्रारब्धकर्मजन्यं सदादिफ़लमभिधातुम् च प्रवृतं शास्त्रं ज्योतिषमिति | शास्त्रस्यास्य सूर्याद्याः अष्टादशप्रवर्तकाः | शास्त्रमिदं चक्षुत्वेनाङ्गिक्रियते |