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Volume -3 Issue - 2
Month [Year] -- [2012]
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Two kinds of radiation modes, continuous radiation and dis-continuous radiation (with 15 min break in each hour's radiation), were conducted to the PFA films. The structure of the AAEMs was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The performances of the AAEMs, including ion exchange capacity (IEC), ionic conductivity, water uptake (WU) and methanol permeability, were investigated systematically. The results showed that the degree of grafting of the film prepared by continuous irradiation is higher than the one prepared by discontinuous irradiation, which results in higher IEC, WU and ionic conductivity.

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In the present scenario, data security on network is getting more and more complex and important. The cryptography is the only way to achieve the security goal. This paper has focus on the solutions for the problems emerge from the algorithm used i.e. DES for data security.

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Human being is a social animal and he is doing business activities since ages. From the passage of time, the business activities are increasing day by day. The same has converted the modern era into era of business. Along with business, technology has also developed rapidly. Now a day countless business transactions are done in a single day and for most of these transactions technology is used. The use of electronic tools by business in developed countries has grown considerably in the past few years. So the immense use of technology in business has converted it into electronic business or e-commerce. It (e-commerce) provides several technical advantages. It utilizes a variety of technologies including electronic data interchange, electronic fund transfers, credit cards, and e-mail but apart from the advantages, it has some social implications also. In this paper agenda of e-commerce in business community is discussed.

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The paper deals with the present state of natural disaster mitigation & management in India, & the proposed strategy to be followed in reducing impact of Natural Disaster by proper education & training. In last more than twenty years; India has experienced heavy floods, cyclones, landslides & earthquakes almost every year. Death, destruction & loss because of natural & manmade disasters are becoming more rather than less frequent. It has also been experienced that the country is not adequately prepared to deal with consequences of these disasters. The experience suggests that there is an urgent need for a proper disaster management strategy that is focused, well co-coordinated & prepared for all obvious eventualities so that its impact is reduced. The paper mainly focused on requirement of education & training on various aspects of disaster management & has finally recommended various comprehensive measures to be taken. The author was actively associated with Rapid assessment of large number of earth quake affected buildings in various places in India. The major reasons leading to failures of large number of structures have been analyzed, their remedial measures discussed, & deliberated by special emphasized on education & training, for reduction of its impact in future.

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Financial Intermediation sector in India is a highly regulated industry. Banks challenges range from inefficient allocation of infrastructure to customer stickiness. To adapt and survive, banks in India are adopting multiple techniques to entice and retain clients. Technology not only simplifies the banking process and service channels but also plays an important role in reducing the cost effectively. Many Indian banks have embarked on the journey of technology revolution and are at varying degrees of success. This is due to the fact that not all of them have understood diversity of their customer base and their varying needs. Most of the PSU and other private sector banks have also deployed channels viz. internet banking and ATM's. But in mobile banking, a number of banks are in the early stages. The main objective of this research paper is to adjudge the present and future scenario of M-banking along with the prospects and challenges ahead in implementation.

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The common name is physic nut. Biodiesel is the most valuable form of renewable energy that can be used directly in any exiting unmodified diesel engine. Jatropha oil has a very high saponifiation value and is being extensively used for soap making lubricants and candles. Jatropha plant has high medicinal value. Jatropha tree take 4 to 5 years to mature fully, it is irrigated 3-5 lt per plants every 15 days). The cost of cultivation of jatropha curcas in one hectre at on espacement of 3mx2m ie 1666 plants per ha has been worked out Rs.25, 826/per ha. Jatropha curcas grows almost anywhere even on gravely samely and saline soils. Jatropha is found in the tropics and subtropics.

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To obtain more insight into the specific impact of Modified Atmosphere (MA) packaging on the composition of the epiphytic microflora of minimally processed vegetables, we determined the prevalent bacteria on cut chicory endive and mungbean sprouts before and after storage under constant MA conditions at 8°C. On both fresh and MA stored mung bean sprouts, Enterobacter cloacea, Pantoea agglomerans, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Ps. Viridilivida and Ps. corrugata constituted the main species. By contrast, we observed a shift from Rahnella aquatilis and several Pseudomonas species towards Escherichia vulneris and Ps. fluorescens on chicory endive before and after MA storage.

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The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among learning styles and academic stress in High, average and Low achieving B.Ed. students. In the present study the sample consisted of 200 students of B.Ed. colleges of government managed and privately managed institutions of Jind. Random cluster method of sampling was used to draw the sample. Analysis of data collected from 200 students found small to moderate correlations between learning style, academic achievement and academic stress. In conclusion we found that there is no significant difference in learning styles of high average and low achieving college students. There were significant difference in academic stress of high, average and low achieving college students. Average and low achieving students had higher magnitude of student than high achieving students. However average and low achieving students had similar level of stress.

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The main components of security are confidentiality, integrity and availability . Confidentiality is the assurance that information can only be accessed by the intended and authorized recipients. Access control mechanisms can be used to preserve confidentiality. Cryptography can for example be used to make the information unreadable to anyone except the parties who hold the cryptographic key to unscramble the data. Integrity is the assurance to an entity that data has not been altered (intentionally or unintentionally) during transmission, from origin to destination. Integrity mechanisms can be divided into two classes: prevention and detection mechanisms. Prevention mechanisms seek to maintain integrity by thwarting any unauthorised attempts to modify the data, while the purpose of detection mechanisms is to signal if the data’s integrity is breached. The main components of security are confidentiality, integrity and availability . Confidentiality is the assurance that information can only be accessed by the intended and authorized recipients. Access control mechanisms can be used to preserve confidentiality. Cryptography can for example be used to make the information unreadable to anyone except the parties who hold the cryptographic key to unscramble the data. Integrity is the assurance to an entity that data has not been altered (intentionally or unintentionally) during transmission, from origin to destination. Integrity mechanisms can be divided into two classes: prevention and detection mechanisms. Prevention mechanisms seek to maintain integrity by thwarting any unauthorised attempts to modify the data, while the purpose of detection mechanisms is to signal if the data’s integrity is breached. In a distributed database system, a program often referred to as the database's "back end" runs constantly on a server, interpreting data files on the server as a standard relational database. Programs on client computers allow users to manipulate that data, using tables, columns, rows, and fields. To do this, client programs send SQL statements to the server. The server then processes these statements and returns replies to the client program.

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The introduction also explains that for training evaluation to be truly effective, the training and development itself must be appropriate for the person and the situation. Effective personal development must also consider: individual potential (natural abilities often hidden or suppressed); individual learning styles; and whole person development (life skills, in other words). Where training or teaching seeks to develop people (rather than merely being focused on a specific qualification or skill) the development must be approached on a more flexible and individual basis than in traditional paternalistic (authoritarian, prescribed) methods of design, delivery and testing.

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It is envisaged that NT will show potentially significant impacts in Environmental and Energy applications. These includes, developing new green processing technologies that minimize the generation of undesirable by-products. It can be used to monitor and remediate existing waste sites and polluted wastewater sources. Can be used for purifying water and air by removing finest contaminants and providing significant impacts on energy efficiency, storage and production.The main components of security are confidentiality, integrity and availability . Confidentiality is the assurance that information can only be accessed by the intended and authorized recipients. Access control mechanisms can be used to preserve confidentiality. Cryptography can for example be used to make the information unreadable to anyone except the parties who hold the cryptographic key to unscramble the data. Integrity is the assurance to an entity that data has not been altered (intentionally or unintentionally) during transmission, from origin to destination. Integrity mechanisms can be divided into two classes: prevention and detection mechanisms. Prevention mechanisms seek to maintain integrity by thwarting any unauthorised attempts to modify the data, while the purpose of detection mechanisms is to signal if the data’s integrity is breached. In a distributed database system, a program often referred to as the database's "back end" runs constantly on a server, interpreting data files on the server as a standard relational database. Programs on client computers allow users to manipulate that data, using tables, columns, rows, and fields. To do this, client programs send SQL statements to the server. The server then processes these statements and returns replies to the client program.

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Consumers choice of private brands reflects distinct differences in terms of product categories, and indications are that demographic and psychographic factors are also influential in terms of the sales of private vs. national brand foods. This study investigated the relationship between selected demographic and psychographic variables and consumers' brand preferences for selected food products in a South African context. Findings revealed that consumers' choice of private brands is probably associated with the product category. This study concluded that brand preference depends on specific demographics for each IT company’s product. Brand preference research therefore seems to be product and region specific and related to specific demographic variables.

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The country has accepted the need for environmental education with the recommendations of the Tiwari Committee (1980). The main objective of environmental education is that individual and social groups should acquire awareness and knowledge develops attitudes skills and abilities and participates in solving real – life environmental problems. The present proper stress is given on integrated; inter disciplinary and holistic approach for environmental education. It lays public in rural, tribal, slum and urban areas, women and students and teachers in schools, colleges and universities as well as planners and decisions and policy makers, programme implementators and workers need to be educated about the environment for a balanced, happy and sustained life. The concept and term ‘Environmental education is very new and latest but it has very ancient roots in our culture explained in Vedas also. In present situation man and environment are considered to be interrelated and there is interdependence in them. The nature or environment becomes a source of sorrow and in happiness, because the dust of earth, light and air of sky has the adverse effects on human beings. Therefore, it widely recognizes the need of introduction of ‘environmental education’.

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The construction industry in India, especially in the National Capital Region (NCR) has seen a rapid boom post India winning the bid for hosting Common Wealth Games 2010 and Delhi being chosen as a venue. The rapid scale work has invited a large number of workers from the erstwhile states as migrants. Lucrative money offers and family sustainability pressures force them to move to urban industrial and developing cities thus increasing the influx of the number of workers moving to the city and thus giving a rise to the population of urban poor. What makes us stop and think is, what is happening to these hands who are giving shape to these massive high rises across different metropolitans in the country, where is a shelter and job security for them? What happens to them when constructions are over? Can we contest Whose Development?

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The space management process involves several different players. On the one hand there is the owner and the real-estate manager. On the other hand there is the customer or the tenant. The real-estate owner is the one who formulates the goals for the management. The owner is the supplier of the premises for the tenant, with a certain level of service and technical functions to satisfy the tenant’s requirements. This means that the owner is the one who leads the process and defines what the manager should do.

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Immunology is the branch of biomedical science that deals with the response of an organism to antigenic challenge and its recognition of what is self and what is not. It deals with the defence mechanisms including all physical, chemical and biological properties of the organism that help it to combat its susceptibility to foreign organisms, material, etc. The immune system is divided into those which are static, or innate to the organism, and those which are responsive, or adaptive to a potential pathogen or foreign substance.

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The theoretical note under this subtopic is primarily based on the reference material [Duffie and Beckman, 1991] [Markvart, 2000]. Photovoltaic (photo = light; voltaic = produces voltage) or PV systems convert light energy directly into electricity using semiconductor technology

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One of the most backward segments of human species all over the world, the Indian women experienced an air of freedom when a call of resurgence came to them from the West. The impact of the advanced democratic ideals and liberal urges and new standard of equality rejuvenated the women, who had long been panting under the position of inferiority to men as a natural dispensation, began to feel the stir of a new life.

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The present study attempts to empirically examine the determinants of FDI in India and importance of the role of FDI and the identified research gaps from the earlier studies, the present study frames the following objectives. The general objective of this study is to analyze the impact of FDI and the policy concern it endangers. The specific objectives of the study are to analyse the trends, growth and patterns of FDI inflows into India with special focus on the post-liberalisation periods; to find out the determinants of FDI flows to India both at the macro level as level as at the sectoral level; to find out the impact of FDI flows to India both at the macro level as well as at the sectoral level and to suggest the strategy for policy measures to attract more FDI into the Indian Economy.

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James wrote his fiction under the impact of the Victorian tradition, and he consequently made no frank treatment of passion (sex). James wrote his fiction for cultivated people who follow certain conventions and customs. To them, love is a matter of conventions. James therefore, has portrayed conventional love in his novels. James made treatment of love with seriousness. There is no sexual hunger and no attempt to satisfy a voracious appetite

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A riddle that time and again faced by politicians and social reformers is as how to raise the social and civic status of people belonging to Scheduled Castes. The cares of Scheduled castes people were put to front in Bengal by Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Swami Dayanand served their cause in North India and Dr. Annie Besant and Col. Olcott handled the south for bringing some kind of positive energy and hopes in the feeble minds of Scheduled Caste people, that had been feebled by generations of oppressions and depressions. The movement like Arya Samaj, Theosophical society, The Brahma Samaj were exceptionally great movement which brought reformation among Scheduled Castes and mitigated their sufferings. Some legislation for the upliftment of these socially thrown people were adopted and implemented but no serious contemplation was given to eradicating the root cause i.e. castiesm, the evil.

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An analysis is made of the dielectric behavior and the anharmonic contribution to the dialectic constants of alkali halides. The volume and temperature derivatives of static and electronic dielectric constants, and of the energy gap between bonding and anti bonding states are derived from the experimental data using Phillips Van –Vechten dielectric theory. The temperature derivatives of dielectric constants at constant volumes are used to estimate the magnitude of an harmonic contributions. The effect of an harmonicity is discussed in terms of different theories .The volume derivatives of static dielectric constant are3 calculated by using the Born –Mayer theory of interionic potentials. The calculated quantities are compared with available experimental data. .The applicability of the Mott Littleton theory of dielectric polarization is also discussed for the crystals under study.

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Some material characteristics of alumina ceramics, e.g., porosity Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio, have been evaluated using ultrasonic sound velocity. The longitudinal and transverse velocities of an ultrasonic sound wave in alumina ceramics decreased proportionally with increasing porosity.Young’s modulus has been calculated from longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic velocities. Young’s modulus depends on porosity.

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A riddle that time and again faced by politicians and social reformers is as how to raise the social and civic status of people belonging to Scheduled Castes. The cares of Scheduled castes people were put to front in Bengal by Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Swami Dayanand served their cause in North India and Dr. Annie Besant and Col. Olcott handled the south for bringing some kind of positive energy and hopes in the feeble minds of Scheduled Caste people, that had been feebled by generations of oppressions and depressions.

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Socio economic status plays an important to develop creativity. Strong financial position provides freedom of choice and high society provide moral support to person especially in Indian context. Many researches in this related area shows that creativity is greatly influenced by Socio-economic status.

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Yoga is recognized as one of the most important and valuable heritage of India. Today, whole world is looking towards yoga for answering various problems. Inspite of this, no field is so grossly misunderstood as yoga, even in India. If one take a cross section of the society and take a general survey of the public opinion about yoga, one shall find that there are many misbeliefs. However, yoga is respected by the Indian schools of philosophy and other philosophers because of its practical aspect containing various psycho-physiological practices rather than its philosophy.

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Death, the theme of about six hundred poems is so dominant in the poetry of Emily Dickinson that she seems to be preoccupied with it. She makes death a means of her search for meaning of life here and in the love after and this experiences the totality of the unity of life and death.

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Banks are life blood of modern economy ; catalytic agent and stimulants to growth; carriers of savings; providers of funds for economic development; one of the largest employers in organized sector; ensures productive use of scarce funds; and temples of hope to budding entrepreneurs. Banks are for the people (welfare and well-being); by the people (managed by human beings); of the people (owned by shareholders who provide capital). It is people-driven and technology enabled economic institutions wherein provision of skills rich human resources is sine quo non.

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Among ungulates, Nilgai, Boselaphus tragocamelus is commonly found in variable numbers in different parts of Haryana and is of prime concern to the farmers. Before initiating systematic study, basic information about this species was collected from the forest and wildlife department, Haryana. Thereafter, a questionnaire was designed and an opinion survey of the inhabitants of surrounding villages of Beer-Sonty reserve forest and Saraswati Plantation Wildlife sanctuary (study sites) was conducted to gather relevant information about various aspects of ecology and behaviour of Nilgai.

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The chopelas –Boehler approximation for the volume dependence of the Anderson –Gruneisen parameter and the Anderson formula for the temperature dependence of thermal expansivity have been used to study the pressure volume temperature relationship for LiF,NaF,NaCl and CsCl crystals up to a pressure of 90 kbar and in the temperature range 298-1073 K. The results obtained are found to present close agreement with the available experimental data.

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Information and communication technologies play a vital role in supporting the requirements and expectations of the teacher- learner on large scale. Its role in teaching-learning support services in Open and Distance Learning (ODL) is a proven fact now. The distance education system responded positively and quickly to the revolution in ICT. TheICT tools and technologies help to meet the requirements of a learner at various phases of learning; the admission phase, the learning phase, the evaluation phase and finally the certification phase as a service.

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Philosophy literally means “Love of wisdom.” Wisdom is not mere knowledge, because one may have knowledge but he may not be wise, wisdom consists in knowledge plus the ability to utilise it properly in different life situations. Thus, philosophy gives man that wisdom with the help of which he understands the whole universe, its nature and purpose, its relation to himself and all the people around him. Philosophy means “mature reflection” about any problem about life and universe taken comprehensively in its complete perspective.

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Jainism believes the universe to the immortal, eternal and created. Parlai is not total anuihilation but merely a sudden change. It require no judges for punishment. The law of Karma is itself complete, un-erring and self-acting. For this scientific belief, those who believe in a creator some time look at Jainism as an atheistic philosophy, but it cannot be so called, because Jainism does not deny the existence of God.

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During the last two decades there has been a remarkable increase in interest in sustained release drug delivery system. This has been due to various factors viz. the extensive cost of developing new drug entities, expiration of existing international patents, discovery of new polymeric materials suitable for prolonging the drug release, and improvement in therapeutic efficacy and safety achieved by this delivery system.

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Where there is a right there is a remedy. This is a jurisprudential aspect that when a legal right infringes there is always remedy to try to mitigate or nutralize the effect of injury.

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The Act defines the term 'current account transaction' as a transaction other than a capital account transaction and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing such transaction includes, Payments due in connection with

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The present investigation was undertaken to reveal the relationship between academic achievement and socio-economic status of Adolescents. The sample of study comprised of 800 students of IXth. Standard drawn from government and private schools Rewari , Gurgaon and Mohindergarh District of Haryana. The result of the study revealed positive and significant relationship between Academic Achievement and socio-economic status in case of rural and Urban, Government & Private, male & female and total sample.

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Our Indian Constitution has taken the responsible of maintaining national unity & integration. Therefore, the constitution provides two sets of safety valves in order to provide security & protection. At first, the President rule in the event of Constitutional machinery in the state and second is by proclamation of emergency due to national crises on account of war external aggression and internal disturbance. Dr. Ambedkar justified centre’s interference in the sphere at state even during normal situation because of its duty to protect the states if there is external aggression or internal commotion.

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India’s economy is one of the fastest growing in the world. It has seen an explosion in the increase of foreign business investment, outsourcing and Indian companies venturing overseas. Traditionally a caste society with roots in Hinduism, Indian culture places a high importance on authority and status. Communication between levels is relatively closed so valuable insight or suggestions from employees in lower positions will rarely be shared with their superiors. Without understanding the complexity of Indian attitudes to authority and how they impact business, organisations doing business in India will struggle to implement change as quickly as necessary, and fail to harness the experience and value of its employees.Understanding the cultural differences which exist when doing business in India is only the first step. International organisations must also understand the what, why and how behind them to develop strategies to effectively cope with these cultural challenges.

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The present paper discusses priority actions that states can take to improve the health and academic outcomes of their young people. Because every child needs sound preparation for a healthy future, school health programs should be established schools throughout the nation. Convincing children and adolescents to adopt behaviors that reduce their risk for chronic diseases is a continual challenge and should be a goal of all public health programs. Achieving this goal requires that state leaders in public health and education accept the opportunity and responsibility to effectively implement and improve school health programs.

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A significant amount of an employee’s waking hours are spent at work. Not long ago, for most people this meant showing up at their workplace for a defined time period each day and, depending on the organization, putting in additional hours or “face time” after regular hours or on weekends. Increasingly, employers are finding that helping workers create and maintain a balance between their home and work lives is key to retaining the best employees. Through alternative work and scheduling arrangements and other life and family friendly programs, employers that help employees reduce stress and gain personal satisfaction reap the benefits of a more loyal, motivated, and productive workforce.

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The scenario of international business has been changing at a fast rate after 1990s. The external environmental factors have been contributing significantly for the remarkable strides in global business. The drivers of globalisation include establishment of World Trade Organisation, emergence and growth of regional integration, decline in trade barriers, decline in investment barriers, increase in Foreign Direct Investment, technological changes, growth of Multinational Companies and increase in business alliances in degree and variety like alliances, joint ventures, mergers, amalgamations and takeovers. International business has playing a major role in gross domestic product growth and economic development of a nation because international market presents more potentials than the domestic market.

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Agro-forestry is a land management system and technology where evergreen plants are deliberately used on the same land management units as agricultural crops and animals, in either a spatial arrangement, there being both ecological and economical interactions between the different components. In other words, “Agro-forestry is a system combing agricultural and tree crops of varying longevity of evergreen plants arranged either temporally or spatially to maximize and sustain aggregate yields. ‘Thus, Agro-forestry is basically a multi dimensional system or approach. It involves two or more than species of the plants. The system usually generates two or more outputs having more than one annual cycle. It is ecologically and economically, more a complex system than a mono cropping system. Agro-forestry ice comprehensive term for different form of land use combining trees and scrubs with agricultural plants and livestock on the same unit of land either alternates or at the same time, using management practiced suiting the socio-economic conditions of the people and system is ecologically and economically viable.In Agro-forestry system multipurpose trees are preferred having characteristics of Nitrogen-taking ability, high growth rate, cropping ability and multi-purpose use.

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The Physical Education Framework is based on the premise that the quality and productivity of each individual’s life can be enhanced through participation in a comprehensive, sequential physical education system that promotes physical, mental, emotional, and social well-being. Education implies a focus on the whole person as opposed to a narrow range of skills and abilities. It means teaching children how to apply new knowledge and to become lifelong learners.

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After the women deliver the child, they don’t take proper care of themselves and the child. They start going to the field and let the child sleep nearby on a piece of cloth while working. Till the day these people don’t understand themselves, no point telling them the same stuff over and over again. The village earlier was a in a pathetic state. It was dirty, people ate raw meat. They will get diseases and we get tension. We are under pressure to check IMR/MMR.

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Nanotechnology (sometimes shortened to "nanotech") is the manipulation of matter on an atomic and molecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products, also now referred to as molecular nanotechnology. A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers. This definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, and so the definition shifted from a particular technological goal to a research category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the special properties of matter that occur below the given size threshold.

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Class exploitation is perhaps the greatest source of oppression of blacks in White literary writings about black women. The multiplicity of possible readings of Beloved is significant especially if one takes into consideration the different points of view of the characters in the novel. Following the development of the narrative, the reader is able to see that the class issue is an important one as it is linked to Capitalism, the system which divides society into two classes: 'master' and 'slaves.' The whites have been the Monopoly Class under this system while the blacks have been the Marginal Class. The blacks have suffered due to their status in society, as a poor, marginal group. The black women, like the black men were also working women. The black women had to work on plantation farms as laborers and also as "mammys"or maids in the kitchens of the white households. They were generally looked upon as menials. Since the beginning of the novel we see Morrison's commitment to the construction of a black identity characteristic of its own, and therefore, different from that given by the white dominant society. To create this new identity in the novel Beloved, Morrison goes back to the slave narratives, the first written experience of black people, and subverts the literary and moral conventions of that genre, providing a new perspective on black female history. Key words: Slavery, exploitation, black women, history, racism.

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Exposure to neurotoxins in society is not new, as civilizations have been exposed to neurologically destructive compounds for thousands of years. One notable example is the possible significant lead exposure during the Roman Empire resulting from the development of extensive plumbing networks and the habit of boiling vinegared wine in lead pans to sweeten it, the process generating lead acetate, known as "sugar of lead". In part, neurotoxins have been part of human history because of the fragile and susceptible nature of the nervous system, making it highly prone to disruption.

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How important is pronunciation instruction and how much time should be allotted for it in such a crowded curriculum where general English is taught , for instance, 3 hours per week as at most junior colleges? Some teachers might argue that pronunciation is not important at all for very few of the tests require students to show their speaking ability. Others, however, find that they do not know how to teach pronunciation, even if they want to teach it . It is because of these conventional notions about pronunciation that the teaching of it has, for too long, been neglected in many ESL/EFL curriculums all over the world. Recently as English teaching has moved to language functions, and communicative competencies, a new urgency for the teaching of pronunciation has arisen (Celce-Murcia, 1987; Morley, 1994; Gilbert, 1994). In Taiwan, however, we found that pronunciation had not yet received similar attention. According to our teaching experience, a great number of our students have many difficulties in pronunciation. When speaking English, with very little or poorly trained pronunciation skills, they have problems either making themselves understood or understanding others.

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Gandhian thought was completely aligned to the ancient aphorism that “Education is that which liberates”. Education, today, aims at answering the wants of the one in power - the imperial exploiter. Instead, rural education should be taking care of the poorest villager. Education system in India, especially in rural India, needs to be revolutionized. Gandhi believed that true education must correspond to the surrounding circumstances or it would not result healthy growth. For development of any area, it is important that people first become independent. For rural development, it is important that people must recognize the resources available to them and make the best possible use of them.

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ABSTRACT Managing funds is a complex task. Stiking the right balance between risk and return is main objective. Indians have a tendency to save more rather than spending more. However the cultural shift is changing the trend. Personal finance in short refers to management of finance by the individual. It includes calculation of income and expenses, budgeting, investment planning, tax planning, retirement planning and estate planning. This paper discusses the concept of personal finance, various alternatives for investment, issues related to personal finance and suggests various measures of handling one’s finances.

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Since April 2010, when Business Roundtable last updated its Principles of Corporate Governance, Indian public corporations have continued to adopt best practices within the framework of strengthened securities market listing standards and legal requirements that developed beginning with the passage of Reform and Consumer Protection Act, Securities and Exchange Board of India act.Business Roundtable continues to believe, as we noted in Principles of Corporate Governance (2005), that the India has the best corporate governance, financial reporting and securities markets systems in the world. These systems work because of the adoption of best practices by public companies within a framework of laws and regulations that establish minimum requirements while affording companies the ability to develop individualized practices that are appropriate for them. Even in the challenging times posed by the ongoing difficult economic environment, corporations have continued to work proactively to refine their governance practices, and develop new practices, as conditions change and "best practices" continue to evolve.

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The women's movements arose as a result of people's awakening to the oppressive forces within societies that have kept women subjugated for centuries. Groups of people began to experience discomfort. When many like-minded men and women began to share their feelings of dissatisfaction, a search for a new reality where men and women would be equal partners began. A new dawn of freedom was heralded and collective, positive action on behalf of women was initiated.

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What is mutual Fund? A mutual fund is the pools of investors having the common goal. Mutual fund is a fund created

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The Study of land relations is mainly the study of the groups connected with the distribution in surplus produce of the land. How to identify these groups so as to capture as many features of reality as possible.1 Prior to the British rule the right of a tributary feudal-lord the zamindar of the time could be obtained on the promise to pay stipulated revenue to the emperor. This right to rule the people inhabiting the estate was known as zamindari right. With the decline of the influence of emperor provincial governor known as subedar become virtually independent to provide the zamindari rights. This replacement of the native lord by foreigner caused the first breach in the existing land relations.

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An integrated HRIS offers the potential for the flexible and imaginative use of stored personal data, which can in turn encourage a transformation of both the people management style used and the role of the Personnel/HR department (Tansley et al., 2001). According to Tansley, HRIS plays an important role in HR transformation storing personal data on employees changing the traditional management styles. The strategic role of the HR function means not only being involved in strategic planning from the outset and during the implementation phase but also matching employee resources with business needs (Panayotopoulou et al., 2005). However, this does not mean that the administrative role will cease to exist, although there is an inherent tension between the outlook required for a strategic HR role and that of the HR specialist in a traditional role (Panayotopoulou et al., 2005). Specifically, a HRIS may contribute to firms‘ strategic positioning in a number of ways, for instance, by improving customer service levels to managers and employees and enhancing the lines of communication between the company and its employees (Alvarez-Suescun, 2007) or by harmonizing tools and practices of management staff and developing HR management and strengthening corporate character (Alvarez-Suescun, 2007).

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Band parameters of III-V compounds are studied theoretically using K.P. theory which accounts for inversion asymmetry of the material. The energy dependence of the electron effective mass, the energy- momentum relation in the band gap and the spin splitting of the bands are calculated. Analytical expression for the band-edge effective mass, the spin splitting and effective g-factor are presented , taking clearly into account an interband matrix element of the spin-orbit interaction.

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Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Signs and symptoms vary between people. Often, symptoms include poor coordination, stiff muscles, weak muscles, and tremors. There may be problems with sensation, vision, hearing, swallowing and speaking. Often babies with cerebral palsy do not roll over, sit, crawl, or walk as early as other children their age. Difficulty with the ability to think or reason and seizures each occurs in about one third of people with CP. While the symptoms may get more noticeable over the first few years of life, the underlying problems do not worsen over time. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. Risk factors include premature birth, being a twin, certain infections during pregnancy such as toxoplasmosis or rubella, exposure to methylmercury during pregnancy, a difficult delivery, and head trauma during the first few years of life, among others. About 2% of cases are believed to be due to an inherited genetic cause.

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It is widely accepted that leading business organizations are the key driving force behind development of the world economy and society, and that businesses that successfully integrate other businesses, that integrate financial, social, and environmental management objectives to determine their future and the future of society are the engines for growth and sustainable economic development in the global marketplace, at the same time creating added shareholder value.

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Early adolescence is viewed as a key stage in which emotional development can affect children's level of wellbeing, and friendship is especially important as they turn from their family to the outside world. In playing with identity, building relationships, maintaining friendships and turning to each other for encouragement and companionship, children gain ‘digital agency’. This process may be beneficial and an important source of support and comfort to the young adolescent who is experiencing transition both cognitively, physically, and through change of school. Policy decisions need to be based on a sound understanding of how children use digital technology, raising awareness of the benefits as well as the potential risks, encouraging peer communication and support, and informing parents and teachers of children's digital world.

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Indian writing in English is in a lot of demand these days. It is also worth mentioning that there has been a movement to take Indian writing across the globe. Writers like Salman Rushdie and Arundhati Roy are considered best-selling authors.Their works have taken Indian writing and writers to great heights. The Department of English in every college wants a scholar who can knowledgeably discourse about Indian writings in English and Indian authors.In the words of Makarand Paranjape,"Indian English Literature is a contest over the nature, identity and ultimately the destiny of modern India".

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Afghanistan the land of the Afghan has had varied past primarily because of its unique geo-strategic location. It is located at the meeting point of four ecological and cultural areas-the Middle East, Central Asian republic, Xinging province of China and the Indian sub-continent. The importance of Afghanistan lies in the strategic mountain ranges of the Hindu Kush, the great dividing line between Central and Southern Asia.

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Among Milton’s early works are: “Hymn on the Nativity” and “At a Solemn Music”. Probably, he had written “L’Allegro” before 1632. As its title means ‘the cheerful man’ and the work is the young poet’s celebration of mirth, in the delights of rustic scenery and also in the busy city. “II’ Penseroso” is a companion piece to“L’Allegro” written during vacations from Cambridge at his father’s house in Horton. Milton had not then gained his later fluency in Italian and the title is a mistaken form of ‘Il Pensicroso’ meaning ‘the contemplative.’ The poem invokes the goddess Melancholy and celebrates the delights of solitude, withdrawal, rumination, music, drama and epic poetry. “Comus”, a Masque, presented at Ludlow Castle in 1634.

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Often, the term intelligence denotes mental abilities such as understanding specific ideas, solving problems and learning from experience. In a more sweeping definition, intelligence reflects a capability for comprehending life, making sense of things and figuring out what to do. It is by using this definition of intelligence that we can refer to Spiritual Intelligence as mental capabilities, sensations and intuition to transcend material concerns, deal with moral dilemmas, intuit “Being values” and grapple with existentialist issues.

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Orphan is a child who has lost one or both parents. Orphans are from a particular exposed group of children. The systematic research on this group of children is emerging and showing distressing figures such as higher level of Aggression, Stealing tendency, Lying habit and Annoying others and what is normal for their age groups. Immediately after the death of a parent the performance goes down, some remain depressed others are fine. It is those who are coming from the poorest socio-economic backgrounds appear to have most problems at school. How they become problematic?

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Human rights violations occur when actions by state (or non-state) actors abuse, ignore, or deny basic human rights (including civil, political, cultural, social, and economic rights). Furthermore, violations of human rights can occur when any state or non-state actor breaches any part of the UDHR treaty or other international human rights or humanitarian law. In regard to human rights violations of United Nations laws, Article 39 of the United Nations Charter designates the UN Security Council (or an appointed authority) as the only tribunal that may determine UN human rights violations.

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This article is in Hindi

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This article is on Sanskrit

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The dialectics of violence, particularly characterizing the partition of the sub-continent, indeed exercised many a creative soul to articulate an artistic response to the life event. The contours of this creative endeavour, in fact, parallel the multiple manifestations of this phenomenon in actuality that constantly and with an ever increasing intensity explodes through the fluid and yet uncrystallised socio-cultural and political matrix of India.

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Article in hindi,Translated Version will be available soon.

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There has been a discussion whether medieval Indian society was feudal or not, but very little discussion on the processes of social and attitudinal change following the advent of the Turks. State efforts at maximising revenue collection and improvement of cultivation by emphasising jins-i-kamil helped in the emergence of a new class of rich farmers among the khud-kasht. The khud-kasht was the social basis of Mughal peace based on a tripartite alliance between the state, the zamindars and khud-kasht.

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The difference between natural and man-made disasters is the element of human intent or negligence that leads to human suffering and environmental damage; many mirror natural disasters, yet man has a direct hand in their occurrence. These are the net result of inadequately managed man-made hazards and they typically cost the most in terms of human suffering, loss of life and long-term damage to a country's economy and productive capacity.

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Fiber to the Premises (FTTP) Known as "the future of connectivity," FTTP technology sends signals from a broadcast distributor or Internet service provider directly to the home using fiber-optic cable. This technology is superior to traditional telephone and cable wires because it uses light to carry Internet transmissions and television signals at rates that are simply not achievable through legacy transmission media. Congestion is alleviated, enabling transmission speeds of more than 200 megabytes per second, so that customers can enjoy some of the fastest download and upload speeds available.

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Electronic commerce (e-commerce) is the marketing, buying and selling of merchandise or services over the Internet. It encompasses the entire scope of online product and service sales from start to finish. E-commerce tools include computer platforms, applications, solutions, servers and various software formats manufactured by e-commerce service providers and purchased by merchants to increase online sales.

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The study has been contributed a huge knowledge who are the beginners in taxation . The VAT system is definitely an improvement over the earlier one in the sense that it is more transparent and curbs tax evasion to some extent, thus generating more revenue for the government. Being less cumbersome, it reduces administrative costs as also eases the tax burden on the final consumer. But despite its advantages, a number of drawbacks of VAT have become apparent, both at the Central as well as the State level. There is lot to know about indirect taxes by further studies.

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In the new reform of market and the presence of a number of MNC’s in the Indian market in various economic activities as a result a battle started for greater market coverage as Indian market share, these MNC’s have to understand and change the mindset of buyer and their perception. These changes can be possible only with the help of attractive packaging which can bring about the required kind of change in the perception, attitude and buying behavior of buyers. Now a day, a number of different kind of packaging material available in world market as well as in Indian market. We are exposed to them with a fraction of time; but it is impossible to retain them all in our memory. Thus it is necessary for every packaging material producer to know and measure the impact of packaging on buyer’s buying behavior when they make purchase.

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In the present paper an attempt has been made to throw light on direct tax reforms in reference to personal income tax structure in India. The paper briefly analyses the issues relating to high tax burden on people falling under low and medium income groups and low tax burden on higher income group with the help of data given in various budgets of central government.

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CRM (Customer Relationship Management) has been increasingly recognized as a business strategy to effectively understand, manage and sustain customer relationship with advanced information and communication technologies. Rapid development of CRM applications have seen the trend that more and more SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises) are seeking to implement CRM in order to survive and compete in the world market. SME’s need a CRM software that easily adapts to their customer care needs while still being low cost. In particular, small and medium enterprise (SMEs) must implement CRM practices into their business operations in order to strategize on establishing high performance and value added technical and innovative capabilities, and competitive advantages over rivals. The aim of this research is to examine the objects for which SMEs adapt the elements of CRM practices with reference to whether this has impact on organizational performance and analyzed specific implications